Kinesiology 1080A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Paul Fitts, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Muscle Spindle

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Kin Test # 1 Review:
BONUS QUESTION  Gillen’s ancé plays professional football for the
BC Lions
Topic 1: What is Psychomotor Learning?
Optogenetics:
Controlling a mouse by using only light  light turns on and their
nerves start ring, causing the mouse to run in circles
Tekra:
A combination of volleyball and hackee-sack
Shows that you can train the central nervous system do amazing
things but you need to practice them
Gross Motor Movements vs. Fine Motor Movements:
Gross motor movement: movement that includes the entire
body
Fine motor movement: includes hands, ngers, etc  more ne
tasks
Motor Learning:
A set of internal processes associated with practice or
experience, leading to a relatively permanent gain in
performance ability
Acquiring and retaining new skills
Practice is important
Motor Control:
An area of study dealing with the understanding of neural,
physical and behavioural aspects of movement
About studying the body:
oBrain: look at the area that is damaged
oBehavioural: Look at eye movements and grasping/
pointing  look at their reaction time and relate them back
to known theories (work backwards)
4 Areas of Motor Learning/ Control:
1. Psychology:
Includes the aspect of perception  how you perceive things,
cognition (to think about what you perceived and to start to
formula a response) and your action (what you actually do)
The brain is like a computer  the serial nature of information
processing
Memory for di4erent tasks  motor tasks vs. cognitive tasks
2. Neuroscience:
Reciprocal Innervation:
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First understood by CS Sherrington  he found that there was a
group of neurons in the spinal chord that are responsible for
reciprocal innervation
These neurons supress activity of antagonist muscle when the
agonist muscle is active
Because of the nal common path to the spinal cord, it produces
the muscular contraction
Agonist: the muscle that’s doing the work
Antagonist: muscle that is relaxed when the agonist is doing the
work  muscle opposite the agonist
oImportant for all movements
oThe nal pathway for any motor movements in the spinal
chord
Neuroimaging:
oIncludes MRI, CAT scans and PET scans
oCase studies about brain damage and their side e4ects
3. Engineering:
Human Engineering:
1. Arthur Melton:
Pilots can be selected based on specic individual abilities
He thought that if someone performs well on tests that include
vision, dexterity and perception that they will become good
ghter pilots
This lead to a lot of accidents because they were all very basic
tests and ghter pilots must do all of these things together while
driving a plane
2. Paul Fitts:
Since there was too many plane accidents he was brought in
Known as the forefather of ergonomics
Studied how we process information in<uences our interactions
with machine computers
Incompatible Spatial Mapping:
Is an example of what’s happening in the cockpit of a plane
Incompatible because the warning light and the processes are
opposite to one another  causing a slower reaction time
This is easy to x switch the positions of warning light A and B 
this is spatially compatible
4. Physical Education:
Franklin M. Henry:
Examined whole body movements and developed experimental
approach to understand how we “learn” to produce complex
movements
Examine whole body movements by starting to look at
gymnastics
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He wanted to know how they are able to develop and remember
these complex movements, even with amputations and
rehabilitation
Topic 2: The Central Nervous System
Divisions of the Central Nervous System:
The Central Nervous System  the brain and the spinal chord
The Peripheral Nervous System
o2 divisions  Autonomic (breathing rate, HR, circadian
rhythms, ght or <ight) and the somatic (takes
information from the Central Nervous System to skeletal
muscles to tell it what to do and vice versa  sensory to
where It takes place)
Hierarchical Organization of the Central Nervous System:
The Cerebral Cortex is like the “big boss”  it tells everyone else
what to do and when to do it
The thalamus, basal ganglia, pons and cerebellum are like
second in command
The brainstem is like the third in command
The spinal chord is a “slave” system to all of the above
The pons is the relay center
The thalamus is the motor control
The basal ganglia initiates and regulates movement
The cerebellum is the timing of the movement
The brainstem is the relay center  any signal that is going or
coming from the brain must pass through the brain stem
Spinal chord  2 pathways  lateral (neurons are bigger, more
complex and innervate our limbs) and medial (neurons are
smaller and less complex, fewer neurons, innervate skeletal
muscles on the midline of our body  important for posture
(standing/ sitting upright)
Medial neurons are smaller because they are usually innervating
larger muscle groups
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