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Final Exam/ Course Review lectures 17-35, lectures needed for the final exam, written in Cornell note-taking style so you can write in your own prompt questions to help you study

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Stephan Larose
Study Guide

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Kinesiology 1088A Final 1
Lecture #17 (October 25th): Psychological Skill Training
Definition: the systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills
o Can be learned, but must be practiced and integrated into your training routine
Psychological factors account for most day-to-day fluctuations in performance
o Psych. skills are innate and can’t be learned
o Only for ‘problem’ athletes
o Only effective for elite athletes
o Provide ‘quick fix’ solutions
Components of any systematic training program:
1. Education- learn the nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences
2. Acquisition- structured training program to develop skills and techniques
3. Practice- integrate skill development into practice and competitive situations
PST program:
o Who: sport psychology consultant, coach
o When: pre-season or off-season
o Needs assessment: evaluate strengths/ weaknesses, oral interview and psych.
inventories, performance profiling
o What: which skills to include, scheduling, evaluation
o Problems: lack of conviction, time, knowledge and/or follow-up
a. Psychological skills (initial)
Performance skills: optimal arousal, attention control
Foundation skills: self-confidence, motivation, self-esteem, awareness
Facilitative skills: interpersonal relations, lifestyle management
b. Psychological methods (secondary focus)
Procedures or techniques used to develop skills
Goal setting, imagery, relaxation, thought control
Lecture #18 (October 27th): Goal Setting
Goal: a target, standard, objective
Goal setting a process of establishing a target or objective in specific behavioural terms
3 main types of goals:
o Outcome goals (win/lose)
o Performance goals (how well you play/ personal best)
o Process goals (actions to execute in order to perform better)
Indirect effect: influence performance by working on psychological states (anxiety, confidence,
satisfaction, attention …etc.)
Benefits of goal setting:
1. Increases productivity, improve quality of work
2. Clarifies expectations
3. Relieves boredom
4. Provides personal recognition
5. Increases personal and task enjoyment

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Kinesiology 1088A Final 2
Goals can be set for:
o Training sessions (log book)
o Practice sessions (areas to work on)
o Competitive events
o Team social events
For each of these sessions or events, goals can be focussed on
o Conditioning
o Knowledge/strategy
o Performance skills
o Attitude/behaviour
Goal setting is an extremely powerful technique for enhancing performance, but it must be
implemented correctly
Warning: don’t overload athletes with too many goals at one time- concentrate on a few of the
most important ones
Principles of goal setting:
1. Relatively difficult, challenging, but attainable (realistic)
2. Specific (action-oriented) and measurable (quantifiable)
3. Within or geared to the potential of the participants
Note: the coach may need to provide a lot of input when inexperienced
participants set goals, as they may not know the task demands, or be able
to assess their own skill level
4. Public and formally committed to by the participant- written or verbal contract
5. Flexible and adjustable (up or down) at all times
6. Have specific time frames and dates
7. Sequential and prioritized but limited in number
8. Progressively linked long-term goals linked by intermediate and short-term goals (8-
10 weeks is most effective)
9. Accompanied by feedback (knowledge of results) and possibly use with rewards
10. Supported by the coach who is a partner and facilitator in the goal-setting process
(commitment and ownership) educate significant others about feedback
11. Evaluate and reinforce goal attainment on effort before performance outcome
12. Do not tie the goals to one’s self-worth (take personal risk/embarrassment out of
goal attaining)
13. Develop goal achievement strategies (action plans) that are unique to each
individual or group
Success in goal settings seems to be independent of
o Age
o Gender
o Education level
o Personality disposition
Follow-up to goal setting
1. Identify appropriate evaluation procedures and evaluate on a regular basis (manage
stats during practice and games)
2. Encourage progress toward stated goals, not just goal attainment
3. Regularly re-evaluate and adjust goals and strategies to achieve them to make them
more realistic (especially short-term goals)

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Kinesiology 1088A Final 3
Lecture #19 (October 29): Group Goal Setting
Attainment of specific standards of group (not individual) proficiency within a specified time or
o Practice: usually process-oriented focussing on effort
o Game: more focussed on outcomes and implementation of specific skills and strategy
As a leader:
a. Involve all participants in the formulation of group goals (commitment)
b. Strive for consensus- work for compromise (facilitate, don’t dictate)
c. Decide on strategies to achieve goals, including levels of effort, commitment,
behaviour and consequences
d. Publicly post goals and update regularly
SMARTS goals:
o Specific
o Measurable
o Action-oriented
o Realistic
o Timely
o Self-determined
Lecture #20 (November 1st): Presence of Others as a Motivator
A. Social facilitation theory (Zajonc, 1965)
Mere presence of others increases arousal levels and results in a response that
happens more intensely or quickly
1. Increased arousal will increase the likelihood that an individual’s dominant response
will occur
2. In simple, well-learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in
the presence of others
3. In complex or newly-learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or
bad habits) and performance will be impaired in the presence of others
B. Evaluation Apprehension (Cottrell, 1972)
Not just the presence that causes arousal, it’s the expectation that the
observers have
We learn to associate others with praise/blame or reward/punishment types of
An audience can be arousing or calming
C. Cognitive Approach (Borden, 1980)
Incorporates both of the above theories
The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience, but is a
proactive participant who:
Interprets the social situation
Predicts the possible audience reactions
Alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction
Previous experience, age, gender and personality will influence the individual’s
subjective interpretation of the social situation
The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the
size within the situation
Expertise: interprets whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of the
Supportiveness: quality of social support from those present
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