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Kinesiology 1088A/B Study Guide - Motor Control, Executive Functions, Autostereogram


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Professor
Bob Larose

Page:
of 49
Field of Expertise (Anders Erikson):
A field of study, which explains why athletes reach their full potential/expertise.
Former grad student (Olaf) was one of Steve Nash’s first head coach. Olaf says that Steve would put up
pylons after practice and practice for hours. Researchers found that anyone who is an expertise has
devoted 10 years or/and 10 000 hours of deliberate practice to their specific domain.
Deliberate practice is cognitive demanding and effortable
o Not fun but is necessary for high level skill attainment
o Necessary for expertise development
Study:
Involves Medical Students and Physicians
They showed participants X-rays of the ankle. Individuals where asked to make a diagnosis based on the
X-Ray. One group was 4th year Medical Student. Other was a bored radiologist who has spent over 10
years in the domain.
Y-axis how accurate they were
X-axis how many trails.
Medical Students did not do a good job.
Radiologist killed it. They made accurate diagnosis first time and kept it constant. They were able to
diagnose instantly, were Medical Students had to think
If you go to the ER, make sure it’s not a medical student; make sure it’s a radiologist or at least the
attending physician. Make sure they are at a level of an expertise.
Information Processing: 3-Stage Approach
The simplified information-processing Model:
Input -> The Human -> Output
Simplified information processing approaching
We process information similar to a computer
Stages of information processing are serial and discrete
o Therefore cannot occur in a parallel fashion
A. Stimulus Identification Stage:
1. Stimulus Detection
Sensory information attained from external sources is detected and transformed into
neurological signals
Neurological signals are mapped onto a meaningful event
Ex. The baseball is approaching my face at a high rate of speed
Not aware of this stimulus detection moment no explicit control over it (below threshold of
our consciousness)
2. Pattern Recognition
Extracting patterns or features from environmental stimuli for use in latter stages of info
processing
Can be a natural or trained phenomenon
Training pattern recognition can optimize performance in temporarily demanding sports and
occupations
Training for pattern recognition can enhance game day or on field decisions and performance
o Peyton Manning cerebral quarterback
o Does that so he can recognize patterns and make a decision by being able to recognize
these things he can make a better response (optimize performance of athletes)
Pattern Recognition Specific to Person
Had three groups:
o People who play chess
o People who play a bit
o Chess masters
Interested in pattern recognition and memory
Two conditions:
o Showed 3 groups a situation in a chess game for 3 seconds
o They were asked to recall where all the chess pieces were
o Masters were obviously the best
Showed 3 groups a situation of pieces which couldn’t actually happen in a game, and asked
them to recall where pieces were
o Masters were the worst
This shows that pattern recognition is specific to the person
Expertise in Sports
Janet Starks interested with whether or not there are asymmetries in which the month someone
is born and the effect of any expertise
Used elite hockey players in Canada, found month they were born
Viewed elite leagues (NHL) and less leagues
In soccer
o In expertise league, 12% born in fourth quartile (last 3 months)
o 2 best leagues, asymmetry in birth date
o Individuals primarily in the first quartile, but as well as the second are overrepresented
in elite athletic leagues
o Extends to football, basketball etc
o Player who starts better will have better coaching and develop more, child will be better
at participating at sport because they feel good about it
o Devote necessary practice to obtain expertise in that domain
B. Response Selection Stage:
Once stimulus is identified, the appropriate action must be selected
E.g. to brake or swerve or swerve to avoid a parked car