Kinesiology 1088A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Interpersonal Communication, Sensory Deprivation

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Kinesiology 1088A: Mid-Term Notes
Lecture #1 (September 13th): What is Sport Psychology?
Objectives of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Sport and exercise psychology: scientific study of people and their behaviours in sport contexts,
and the practical application of that knowledge. Three primary roles for sport psychologists:
conducting researching, teaching, consulting. Two objectives in understanding sport psychology:
a. Consider how psychological factors affect physical performance in sport and exercise
b. How sport affects an individual’s psychological development, health, well-being
Two types of specialties
o Clinical sport psychology: training in psychology, to detect and treat individuals with
emotional disorders (eating disorders, depression, substance abuse)
o Educational sport psychology: training in sport science, kin, understand the psychology
of human movement, NOT licensed psychologists, not trained in emotional disorders
Comprehensive Objective
Understand (through description, explanation, prediction) the behaviour and performance of
individuals in sport Am I in control of my mental capacity?
Behaviour: a unique way to respond to all stimuli
Performance: goal-directed behaviour for the purpose of short-term execution of a discrete task
Orientations to sport and exercise psychology
1. Behavioural: behaviour of athletes determined by the environment depending on the
sporting environment, it will affect how you perform
2. Psychophysiological: study impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour
3. Cognitive behavioural: behaviour determined by one’s interpretation of both environment and
cognitions (thinking process, interpretation of how we feel about this environment)
Professional Approaches:
Clinical counselling eating disorders
Crisis intervention slump busting
Psychological assessment
Performance enhancement
Consultation and program development
Prevention and treatment of injuries
Kolb’s Learning Cycle
Experiential learning process
1. Concrete Experience 2. Reflective observation (think about what happened) 3. Abstract
Conceptualization (make sense of it) 4. Active experimentation (try it out elsewhere)
Methods/ Ways of Knowing
Scientific method/ experiments
Systematic observation
Single Case Study
Shared Public Experience
Introspection (thought/ feelings)
Lecture #2 (September 15th): Ways of Knowing in Sport Psychology
Systematic study of sport psychology should include:
1. Observation and description identify the essential characteristics
2. Explanation and Analysis attempt to find a reason for stage one
3. Prediction use knowledge obtained to predict what happens in the future
4. Control what can we control to change the behaviour?
The Scientific Method
Founded on the concept of objectivity
Lack of bias: researchers are detached observers, and manipulators of nature
It is a process or method of learning that uses systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical
filtering of knowledge acquired through experience
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Kinesiology 1088A: Mid-Term Notes
6 steps to the method:
1. Formulation of a specific hypothesis
2. Design investigation to test hypothesis
3. Accumulation of data (do experiment)
4. Classification of data
5. Development of generalizations
6. Verification of results
This provides scientists with a way of collecting reliable and valid data to develop theories and
laws however, a slow process that often lacks external validity (practicality)
Study vs. Experiment
Study: not changing the environment
Experiment: the investigator manipulates the variables
Reductionistic: too complex to study all the variables of a situation simultaneously, so the
researcher may select isolated variables
Internal validity: science favours the extent to which results of an investigation can be attributed
to the treatment used
Psychophysiological orientation: examine the physiological processes of the brain
Social-psychological orientation: behaviour is determined by a complex interaction with the
Cognitive-behavioural orientation: athlete’s thoughts
Professional Practice Knowledge
Holistic and experiential (guided trial-and-error learning)
Innovative, immediately applicable (less reliable and susceptible to bias)
The biggest difference is the central and active role of the researcher in the process of knowing
(within the research rather than an outside observer)
Tacit Knowledge
A process of inference and intuition that integrates clues into meaning
Subsidiary awareness of certain clues (“know more than we can tell”)
Use unique experience and knowledge to develop strategies
Examples: case studies, clinical reports, in-depth interviews, introspective reports, participant
observations, shared experience
You must actively integrate scientific knowledge with professional experience and temper these
with your own insights!
Science of Coaching
The science of coaching recognizes when, how, and in what situations to individualize these
general principles
Sport psychology is more than the scientific or holistic study of human behaviour. It also
involves the application of knowledge to enhance performance, behaviour, personal growth,
and enjoyment of sport and physical activity
Lecture #3 (September 17th): Motivation
Motivation: a theoretical concept (not a directly observable phenomenon) used to account for
the selection of activity, intensity of activity, and persistence
o The direction (approach/ avoid) and intensity (high/low) of one’s effort
o Participant-oriented, situation-oriented, interaction of both
Personal factors: needs, interest, goals, personality
Social factors: facility, coach-leader style
Some motivational factors can be easily changed while others are more difficult to influence
1. Both the situation and personal traits motivate participants
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Kinesiology 1088A: Mid-Term Notes
2. Important for a leader to understand what motivates a participant multiple motives,
competing motives (de-motivational), shared/ unique motives
3. Structure or change the environment to enhance motivation
4. Critical role of the leader in influencing the motivation of the participants (coaching style)
5. Undesirable motives can be changed through behaviour modification techniques
Token Rewards as Motivators
Reward: things used to modify or manipulate behaviour material
Reinforcement: personal interactions (verbal and non-verbal)
Token rewards are also known as behaviour modification, operant conditioning, token
economies, contingency management
Contingency: relationship between a behaviour and its consequence
Contingency management: the regulation of behaviour by using tokens to influence or alter
outcomes (such as trophies, food, recognition, money)
Undesirable behaviours can be eliminated through use of token rewards ex. Attendance
board (public), group competition (intensity)
Desirable behaviours can be enhanced through use of token rewards improve supportive and
positive communication, such as point system and daily public posting of points earned
Token rewards have a spill-over effect on non-target behaviours:
o Satisfaction and enjoyment
o Promptness and attendance
o Interest and attitudes
o Conformance to rules
o Social interaction
o Statements of approval (less
Token rewards can be used to improve individual skills and/or task performance
Guidelines of Token Rewards
1. Target only a couple behaviours/ skills and explain them in readily observable terms
2. State the contingencies/ outcomes readily/ clearly
3. Monitor the target behaviour consistently
4. Provide meaningful public feedback that focuses on self-improvement, not social comparison
(will occur naturally)
5. Use a very simple reward system and be consistent in the application of the rewards
6. Think and start small, then expand
7. Consider individual differences when applying a program of behaviour modification
*Gradually work to eliminate the token system as the desirable behaviours are entrenched*
Lecture #4-5 (September 20th and 22nd): Reinforcement
Reinforcement: any personal interaction that will increase the strength of a behaviour
Positive reinforcement: introduction of something positive that increases/ maintains a response
Negative reinforcement: removal of something noxious that increases/ maintains a response
Punishment: Any interaction that decreases the strength of a behaviour
Maximizing the use of punishment, if used:
o Consistency: punish everyone the same for the same misdemeanour
o Punish the behaviour, not the person
o Allow input into what the punishment is
o Don’t use physical activity as punishment
o Make sure punishment isn’t perceived as reward or attention
o Don’t punish errors during play
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