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Kinesiology 1088A/B Midterm: Kin 1088A Study Notes

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose
Study Guide

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Kin Study Notes
Behaviour – a unique way of responding to ALL stimuli
Performance – goal-directed behaviour for the purpose of short term execution of a discrete task
Behavioural – behaviour of athletes determined by the environment
Psychophysiological – study impact of physiological responses to activity on behaviour
Cognitive-Behavioural – behaviour determined by one’s interpretation of both environment and
cognitions (thoughts)
Reward – “things” used to modify or manipulate behaviour – material rewards
Reinforcement – personal interactions; verbal and non-verbal
Contingency – relationship between a behaviour and its consequences
Contingency Management – the regulation of behaviour by use of tokens to influence or alter outcomes
Reinforcement – any personal interaction (evaluative comments or reactions) tat will increase the
occurrence or strength of a behaviour or performance
oPositive – the intro. of something positive that increases or maintains a response
oNegative – the removal of something noxious that increases or maintains a response (ex. work
hard and we won’t run wind sprints)
oPunishment – any interaction that decreases the strength of a behaviour
Social Reinforcement – non-tangible, positive or negative, evaluative comments and reactions made by
Reinforcement Schedules – the frequency of reinforcement
oConstant Schedule – reinforce every occurrence of the desired behaviour/skill (ex. new training)
oIntermittent Schedules:
Ratio – given after a set number of the correct responses (ex. every third rep)
Interval – given after a specific amount of time has elapsed (ex. every two minutes)
Duration – given during a set period of time (ex. only give during certain drills or portions
of practice)
Salience – the importance attributed to a reward
Flow Experience – an autotelic feeling where the participant feels totally involved in the activity
Adherence – sticking together or faithfully conforming to a standard of behaviour in order to meet some
Leadership – a behavioural process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals
oPrescribed Leaders – coaches, managers, team captains, etc
oEmergent Leaders – people not in a leadership role but come out as a leader and gain the trust
and respect of the team
Role – a set of behaviours required of a person occupying a certain position in the group
Norm – a standard or belief about what is appropriate or inappropriate behaviour for group members
Group cohesion – dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to attract members, stick
together, and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and/or the satisfaction of its members
64% of Americans were seen as overweight or obese in 2004
Only 10% of people who don’t exercise will ever begin an exercise program
50% of all people who start will drop out within the first 6 months
Among adults, 30% do not participate in an physical activity
oOnly 10-15% participate in regular vigorous exercise (3 times a week for 20 mins)
Physical activity declines by half from age 12-21 for both boys and girls – 70% to 35%
50% of youths from 12-21 do NOT participate in regular physical activity
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Motivation: Class 2
The direction and intensity of one’s effort
Used to account for SIP:
oSelection – what will I do, how do I choose it
oIntensity – how hard will I go to get better
oPersistence – (how long will I stick with it) of behaviour, learning or performance in any activity
Not a directly observable phenomenon
Refer to notes for situation and participant oriented
Social Reinforcement: Classes 4-6
Presented through:
oVerbal praise or criticism/sarcasm
oNon-verbal expressions or gestures
Works best when:
oIt is used on younger participants
oIt is used infrequently
oIt is used to convey information about competence
oIt is administered by significant people of the opposite sex
oIt is given by unknown or disliked others
oThe task being reinforced is simple, well-learned, and/or boring
Implications: See notes
50% positively reinforce good behaviour as often as possible
45% ignore bad behaviour while suggesting correct behaviour
5% punishment of intolerable behaviour along with suggestions for alternative behaviour
Communication: Classes 7-9
Sender  Channel  Receiver  Decoding  Response  Decision  Encoding (then cycle repeats)
Purpose: PEIMP
oPersuade (running wind sprints isn’t a punishment, we need them to beat opponent)
oProblem Solve
Non-verbal accounts for 50% of all communication
Active Listening – focuses n content, intent, and feelings
Theoretical Approaches to Exercise Adherence: Refer to Classes 10-12 slides OR Page 421
Health Belief Model – likelihood of an individual becoming active depends on their perception of the
severity of the potential illness
Theory of Reasoned Action – intentions are the best predictors of actual behaviour
Theory of Planned Behaviour – furthers reasoned action; intentions cannot be the sole predictors of
behaviour, esp. in situations in which people might lack some control over the behaviour
Leadership: Classes 10-12; Chapter 9
Three basic decision making styles:
oAutocratic – coach makes decisions on own
Prefereed by males, older athletes, and during times of stress
oParticipative – coach and athletes make joint decisions
Preferred by females and in low stress situations
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