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Kinesiology 1088A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Sport Psychology, Hyperintensity, Social Learning Theory

Course Code
Kinesiology 1088A/B
Bob Larose
Study Guide

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The systematic and consistent practice of mental or psychological skills
Psychological skills can be learned but must be practiced and integrated into your training
Psychological factors account for most day to day fluctuations in performance
Myths about Psychological Skills (these are false)
Psychological skills are ‘innate’ (can’t be learned)
Only for ‘problem’ athletes
Only effective for ‘elite’ athletes
Provide ‘quick fix’ solutions
Not useful ‘hocus pocus’
Components of PST Programs (same as physical skills)
1. Education Phase
Learn nature and basis of the skill and understand how it influences performance
2. Acquisition Phase
Structured training program to develop skills and techniques
3. Practice Phase
Integrate skill development into practice and competitive settings
Overall, helps make the sporting experiences fun and meet everyone’s needs
PST Program
o Sport psychology consultant
o Coach
o Pre-season or off-season
o 3-6 month duration
o Ongoing process integrated into practices
o Evaluate strengths & weaknesses
o Oral interview & psych inventories (p262)
o Performance profiling (p261) [Comparing self to elite athlete]
o Which skills to include? (--> strengths & weaknesses)
o Scheduling (formal, informal, regular?)
o Evaluation & follow-up

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o Lack of conviction
o Lack of time
o Lack of knowledge
o Lack of follow-up
Psychological Skill Development is broken down into:
1. Psychological SKILLS (Primary Focus) to be developed
Personal qualities to be attained or developed - target behaviours
o Performance skills
o Optimal arousal mental, physical
o Attention control
Foundation skills
o Self-confidence
o Volition, motivation
o Self-esteem/self-awareness
Facilitative skills
o Interpersonal relations
o Lifestyle management
2. Psychological METHODS (Secondary Focus)
Procedures or techniques used to develop psychological SKILLS (vehicles to attain them)
Such as
o Goal setting
o Relaxation
o Imagery
o Self-talk
o Thought processes
o Attributions
‘Others’ = spectators or audience (observers)
Or coactors (others doing same task; rivals)
1. Social Facilitation Theory
The mere presence of others serves to increase arousal levels and cause a response to occur faster or
more intensely
o Increased arousal levels will increase the likelihood that an individual’s DOMINANT
response will occur

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o In simple, well learned skills, correct responses and improved performance occurs in the
presence of others
o In complex or newly learned skills, the dominant response may be incorrect (old or bad
habits) and performance will be impaired in the performance of others
Effect of the Presence of Other People at Different Stages
Beginning learning stage: Harmful
Intermediate learning stage: Slightly harmful or beneficial
Highest learning stage: Beneficial, or no apparent effect
2. Evaluation Apprehension
It’s not just the presence of others that causes arousal. Rather, it is the expectation that those present
will judge or evaluate the quality of the performance that increases arousal and influences performance
Lecture 1024
An audience can thus have either an arousing or calming effect & produce resultant variations in
performance or behaviour (Drive Theory)
3. Cognitive Approach
a. Incorporates both of the above theories, takes it one step further
b. The performer is not simply a reactor who responds to an audience or coactors
c. The performer is a proactive participant who:
i. Interprets the social situation (through perceptions & expectations),
ii. Predicts possible audience reactions, and
iii. Alters behaviour to appeal to this reaction
iv. Previous experience, age, gender, & personality will all influence an individual’s
subjective interpretation of a social situation.
d. The size of the audience is not as important as how the individual interprets the size
within the situation (numbers according to setting hostile vs supportive)
e. Expertise interpret whether the crowd can accurately assess the quality of
performance (if so, their feedback matters more)
f. Supportiveness quality of social support from those present
Home Field
Functional aggression (home); people are more aggressive
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