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Kinesiology 2230A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Myocyte, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Myosin Head

Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Glen Belfry
Study Guide

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Exercise Physiology Final Review
Muscle Hierarchy
Muscle Belly Muscle fibers Muscle fiber Myofibril Sarcomere
Myofilaments (Actin is this and Myosin is thick)
Types of Muscle
Skeletal Muscle
More than 430 muscles in body (act in opposing pairs)
Voluntary muscle; controlled consciously
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Slow Oxidative/Slow Twitch/Type I
o Slow contraction speed, low contraction force
o Low anaerobic capacity, high aerobic capacity
o Best for prolonged low intensity exercise
Fast Oxidative Glycolytic/Fast Twitch A/ Type IIa
o Fast contraction speed, high force of contraction
o Medium anaerobic capacity, medium aerobic capacity (equal)
o Best for prolonged high intensity exercise; produce energy fast and aerobically
(avoid producing lactate)
Fast Glycolytic/Fast Twitch B/ Type IIb
o Fastest contraction speed, and highest contraction
o High anaerobic capacity, low aerobic capacity
o Best for short, high intensity exercise
The specific fiber type that composes most of your muscle will dictate where you will be
most successful in sport (partially has to do with genetics)
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Cardiac Muscle
Involuntary muscle, only found in heart
Controls itself with assistance from nervous and endocrine systems (adrenal gland)
Different from skeletal muscle in that…
o Stimulated by the SA node, not innervated by nerves
o No real origin and insertion (originate and insert from each other)
Smooth Muscle
Involuntary muscle
Controlled unconsciously (by peripheral and local stimuli)
Located in walls of blood vessels and internal organs
Anatomy of the Muscle
Connective Tissue
o Tissue surrounding whole muscle
o Tissue surrounding a muscle fiber bundle (approximately 150 muscle fibers;
sarcolemma membrane)
o Tissue surrounding individual fibers (within the bundles)
Fasiculus (Fascicle)
o Group of fibers
*A group of myofibrils makes one muscle fiber, covered by endomysium. A bunch of muscle
fibers make a muscle fiber bundle or a fascicle, covered by perimysium. A group of muscle fiber
bundles makes a muscle, covered by epimysium.
The connective tissues from epimysium, perimysium, and endomysium come together to
form tendon that attaches to bone
o Allows for transfer of force to create shortening of the muscle (transmits force
from muscle to bone)
Two attachments points…
o Origin (non-moveable)
o Insertion (moveable)
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Scaffolding Proteins
Involved in the muscle structure, and help muscles keep their shape
Enable transfer of force of muscle shortening to the bone, leading to movement of joint
Binding sites for proteins involved in signaling cascades Allow you to get bigger and
stronger (transformations originate on scaffolding proteins where adaptive changes
o Any type of signaling
Ex: Lay down More myosin, more actin)
o Myosin protein (anchors M-line to Z-line)
o Actin protein
Contractile Proteins
Thick filament
o Myosin
Thin filament
o Actin
o Tropomyosin
Rope like structure which winds around actin
o Troponin
Attaches on to tropomyosin holding it on myosin binding sites
Individual Sarcomeres
As actin-myosin pump is shortened, shortening is transferred to the sarcomere
Z-line is anchor point to adjacent sarcomeres, so when each end of sarcomere shortened,
force can be transferred to the next sarcomere
M-line is anchor point within sarcomere that can transfer changes in length to the origin
and insertion
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