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[Kinesiology 2230A/B] - Midterm Exam Guide - Ultimate 40 pages long Study Guide!


Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 2230A/B
Professor
Glen Belfry
Study Guide
Midterm

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Western
Kinesiology 2230A/B
MIDTERM EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Exercise Physiology Final Review
Adaptation
Training Adaptations to Exercise
Time Motion Analysis Specificity
Different intensities, durations, and strengths required for different sports, therefore
requiring different training
o Basketball: Aerobically trained, quick, strong (maintain high power outputs)
o Volleyball: Tall and light (to jump), generally high VO2max
o Hockey players: Anaerobically trained (ATP-PCr systems), lactate accumulations
Training programs designed to maximize adaptations depending on specific sport
Effects of Training
Metabolism
Cardiorespiratory
Muscle
Metabolism: Energy Production
Muscle adapts to be more effective energy provider
o Achieved when muscle can generate more ATP in shorter period of time and
maintain it for longer period of time (longer power output)
(Changes in) intensity and duration influence adaptation
o Time spent training will have specific impact on different energy systems
Work/Recovery (interval training)
Aerobic Training
An increase in ability to use oxygen accompanied by increase in fuel supply and better
control of metabolism
o Amount of oxygen consumed will reflect power of aerobic system
Resistance training leading to increased muscle mass causes decrease in aerobic capacity
of muscles
o Changing body composition (burning adipose tissue) usually results from slower
and less intense training
Aerobic Training Key Points
o Increased aerobic capacity
o Increase fuel storage
o Sparing of CHO (carbohydrates)
Increased Capacity
Increase in mitochondrial size and number
o Size is function of increased concentrations of substrates for Krebs Cycle, ETC,
more enzymes, and more substrate within cell
With increased mitochondria, there is increased enzyme activity
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o Succinate Dehydrogenase and Citrate Synthase (both Krebs cycle enzymes) will
respond specifically to aerobic training
Results in increased aerobic capacity
Aerobic capacity will increase over time and eventually level off
Both duration and intensity of exercise important influences on these adaptations
o Duration doesn’t directly affect this because the intensity is what pushes your
VO2max, therefore increasing your aerobic power
o However, decrease in duration generally means increase in intensity
Succinate Dehydrogenase and Citrate Synthase Activity
Gastrocnemius enzyme activity in untrained (UT) subjects, moderately trained (MT)
joggers, and highly trained (HT) marathon runners
o Increasing capacity as we go from UT to HT athletes
Much higher concentration of both succinate dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase in HT
than in UT, with MT falling in middle
o Due to increased capacity developed from training, allows for more mitochondria
and thus more enzyme
Increased aerobic capacity directly related to enzyme levels in mitochondria
o Higher enzyme levels and activity associated with higher aerobic capacity
Effects of Incremental Training Over 7 months on Succinate Dehydrogenase and VO2max
Training distance linearly increased over duration of 7 months (swimming)
Succinate Dehydrogenase continually increased for whole 7 months, more gradual
around 5-7 months
The % change in VO2max increased rapidly from month 1-2 then stayed relatively stable
o Distance swam was eventually doubled, however, no change in VO2max
Distance of exercise (swimming) was increased (duration increased), however, the
intensity remained the same
o It is intensity that has huge effect on ability to increase VO2max
o If they are just swimming at low intensity for longer periods of time, will never
come close to VO2max
Only way to increase VO2max is if you come close to or reach it in
training sessions
Succinate Dehydrogenase still demonstrated constant linear increase because although
aerobic power not improving (some adaptation of VO2 lost), some effect on enzyme
activity still occurring
o Possible for this to translate into increasing VO2max (not demonstrated in study)
o Mitochondrial enzyme activity not direct indication of endurance capacity
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