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Athletic Injuries Notes Midterm 2.docx

Course Code
Kinesiology 2236A/B
Bruce Morrison
Study Guide

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Lecture 7: Concussions 03/12/2012
Concussion Definition
A complex pathophysiological process affecting the brain induced by traumatic biomechanical forces
Can be linear or rotational
Injury at impact site
Brain strikes skull on opposite side
Brain strikes skull on other side
Brain rotates – stretches or tears structures/vessels as it shears on itself
Symptoms are dependent on the person so it is hard to define specific symptoms
Combination of Emotionality(sadness), Somatic (dizziness), Sleep Disturbance (less than usual), and
cognitive symptoms (attention and memory)
Common Symptoms
High school/university athletes w/in 3 days of injury
Headache (71%)
Feeling slowed down (58%)
Difficulty concentrating (57%)
Dizziness (55%); Fogginess (53%); Fatigue (50%)
Visual blurring or double vision (49%)
Light sensitivity (47%); Memory dysfunction (43%)
Balance problems (43%)

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Just because some symptoms are not “visible” doesn’t mean the person is not concussed
There are no defined symptoms for concussions
“I Didn’t See Him Hit His Head”
60% from head impacts
40% are from getting hit in the head
Concussions may be caused either by:
A direct blow to the head, face, neck or
Elsewhere on the body with an “impulsive” force transmitted to the head
Ex. getting hit – body stops, head keeps going
“He Didn’t Even Get Hit Hard”
Impacts of 100-190g 20mpg w/ deceleration of 14 mph
No agreed-on biomechanical threshold for injury (60-168g)
Ex. females have weaker necks
Force does not factor in on symptom severity
Not worried about how hard they were hit – do not base recovery time on this because symptoms do not
present themselves based on force
It’s the factors involved in hit (such as position) that are imp.
Concussion Impact

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Not how hard you’re getting hit
Cumulative effects
Orientation while getting hit (position)
Timing of the hit
“Needs Better Equipment”
Helmets only partially absorb impact
Helmets mainly prevent skull fracture
“The inherent material design of helmets are ideal for preventing high energy impact forces associated
with catastrophic head injuries but less ideal for reducing the lower impact/rotational forces to which
concussion are typically related”
aka helmets can’t protect us from very much  MYTH that it will protect from head injury.
“Get a new mouth guard”
Won’t prevent concussions
There is NO strong scientific evidence of an association between mouth-guard use and reduced
concussion risk
“Concussions Are Getting Worse” – How bad is it?
35 concussions severity scales have been published
“Length of time missed has doubled in the NFL over the past 10 years”
None have been scientifically validated
No such thing as a minor, severe, Grade 1,2, or 3 concussion
How do they know whats going on inside that head???
Reason time missed is getting longer is b/c we are getting smarter with how we deal with them – YOU
“He Was Out for a Few Seconds” or “He Had a Convulsion, It Must Be Bad”
Always check neck
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