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Kinesiology 3337A/B Final: 3337 Final Exam Review
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Department
Kinesiology
Course Code
Kinesiology 3337A/B
Professor
Glen Belfry

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3337 Final Exam Review
Storage
-Glucose  pyruvate  pyruvate oxidation  acetyl CoA  citric acid cycle  respiratory chain
-Glycerol goes back and forth in glycolysis
-Some amino acids are broken down from proteins to enter glycolysis
-Glycerol is broken down from lipids to enter glycolysis
-Fatty acids are broken down from lipids to become acetyl coa to enter the citric acid cycle
-Excess fatty acids are turned back into lipids
-Purines and some amino acids are broken down from proteins as well as pyrimidines
-Storage component refers to access glucose stored as lipids
Body Composition – energy expenditure
-Metabolism: RQ Respiratory Quotient = CO2 produced / O2 consumed
-Respiratory quotient is used in BMR basal metabolic rate calculations when estimated from CO2
production in ratio to O2 being consumed by the body
-It takes different amounts of O2 to oxidize different substrates into CO2 and H2O
-CHO: If it was a ratio of 1:1 then it would look like 6O2=6CO2
-Fats: Ratio to oxidize palmitic acid is 0.69 (a saturated fatty acid)
-Protein: protein is not just oxidized, it needs to be deaminated in the liver to remove the N + S
(ammonia) Ratio is 0.8
-Urinary Nitrogen – 1g of urinary nitrogen is excreted for every 6.25 g of protein metabolized for
energy, each g of N represents 4.8L/6.0L CO2 produced and O2 consumed respectively
-High blood levels of omega-3 FFA’s free fatty acids have decreased mortality rates, live longer and
have decreased rates of heart disease and are protected against neurodegenerative diseases
Protein – Oxidation of Leucine (amino exercise) during exercise
-During steady-state oxygen consumption during exercise, more and more protein is being broken
down and used, specifically at 2hr VO2 is 2.0L/min meaning that past that almost 80 mmol/kg/hr of
leucine oxidation is occurring for protein to be used as fuel (recall oxidizing it to become components
as fuel to change to acetyl coa to enter citric acid cycle)
-Recall amino acids to be used need the NH ammonia group removed as urea to be used as fuel
-The amino acid is converted into the acetyl coa through the addition of carboxyl groups or other
chemicals
-Protein oxidation in men and women at rest pre- and post-training, the significance lies in the change
in protein. Pre- training there is more protein being used than after training where the body starts to
use more fats instead of breaking down muscle
-Essential Fats – Males 3%
-Essential Fats – Females 12%
Body Composition Models
-(1) Behnke Model  2 Component Model = fat mass + lean body mass
Fat mass = non-essential fat
Lean body mass = fat-free mass + essential fat
-(2) Brozek/Siri  fat mass + fat free mass (non-fat tissue)
Body density assumes FFM is constant
Fat compartment 0.900 Fat Free Compartment 1.100
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-(3) Chemical Model  fat, protein, CHO, water, minerals, metals
-(4) Anatomical Model  adipose, muscle, organs, bone, connective tissue, nervous tissue
Factors that Effect Body Composition
-BMR makes up 60-70% of total caloric expenditure per day for a normal person
-Metabolic Rate – severe caloric restriction decreases BMR (starvation), decreased ability to keep
warm, Acclimatization – cold increases BMR, metabolic rate – increases during exercise
-Energy expenditure is different across activities
-Age – density of skeleton, water change content, children FFM associated with more water and less
bone density (older adults than young adults have lower bone density) children also have lower bone
density aka. fat-free mass
-The more load you put on a bone, the denser it gets therefore do more load-bearing exercises
-Change in bone mineralization with age like osteoporosis and osteosclerosis
-Nutrition causes amenorrhea or loss of bone mass
-Athletes have increased bone density – highly trained select groups have increased muscle mass, are
resistance trained and support weight and have high impact activities (gymnast high, swimmers low)
-Water is a part of FFM with over or under hydration, 65% of an adult is made of water, the older you
are the less water
-Ideal – 15% men, 23% women
-Males have higher prevalence of excessive body weight than females at around age 44
-BMI – 18.5 is normal, indicates proportional mass
BMI, Obesity, and Risk of Mortality
-J-Shaped Curve – relationship of having high BMI and higher mortality ratio, very low is bad and very
high is bad as well. Low for malnutrition, high for obesity
-60% of the world has BMI over 25
Methods of Assessing Body Composition
-WHR Waist to Hip Circumference Ratio
-Android = adipose in upper body is associated with greater health risk, subcutaneous fat
-Gynoid = adipose in lower body, android type of obesity
-Body types – ectomorph (tall and thin), mesomorph (athletic), endomorph (short and fat)
-Healthy % adipose F = 25%, M = 15%
-Attribute 3500 k/cals per lbs (eating and activity needed)
-Skinfold – 2 component models – density of fat = 0.9, FFW = 1.1
-Bioelectric Impedance - Increased skin temperature will decrease body fat as conductivity of most
ions increase in conductivity by about 2.2% of their value per degree Celsius
CSEP Physical Activity Training for Health CSEP-PATH
-Relationship between physical activity, fitness, and health
-Physical activity encompasses all leisure and non-leisure body movement produced by the skeletal
muscles, which result in an increase in energy expenditure over resting levels
-Physical fitness is a set of attributes or characteristics that people have (or achieve) that relates to
their ability to perform physical activity
-(1) general fitness = a state of health and well-being (2) specific fitness = a task-oriented definition
based on the ability to perform specific aspects of a sport or physically demanding occupation
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Description
3337 Final Exam Review Storage Glucose pyruvate pyruvate oxidation acetyl CoA citric acid cycle respiratory chain Glycerol goes back and forth in glycolysis Some amino acids are broken down from proteins to enter glycolysis Glycerol is broken down from lipids to enter glycolysis Fatty acids are broken down from lipids to become acetyl coa to enter the citric acid cycle Excess fatty acids are turned back into lipids Purines and some amino acids are broken down from proteins as well as pyrimidines Storage component refers to access glucose stored as lipids Body Composition energy expenditure Metabolism: RQ Respiratory Quotient = CO2 produced O2 consumed Respiratory quotient is used in BMR basal metabolic rate calculations when estimated from CO2 production in ratio to O2 being consumed by the body It takes different amounts of O2 to oxidize different substrates into CO2 and H2O CHO: If it was a ratio of 1:1 then it would look like 6O2=6CO2 Fats: Ratio to oxidize palmitic acid is 0.69 (a saturated fatty acid) Protein: protein is not just oxidized, it needs to be deaminated in the liver to remove the N + S (ammonia) Ratio is 0.8 Urinary Nitrogen 1g of urinary nitrogen is excreted for every 6.25 g of protein metabolized for energy, each g of N represents 4.8L6.0L CO2 produced and O2 consumed respectively High blood levels of omega3 FFAs free fatty acids have decreased mortality rates, live longer and have decreased rates of heart disease and are protected against neurodegenerative diseases Protein Oxidation of Leucine (amino exercise) during exercise During steadystate oxygen consumption during exercise, more and more protein is being broken down and used, specifically at 2hr VO2 is 2.0Lmin meaning that past that almost 80 mmolkghr of leucine oxidation is occurring for protein to be used as fuel (recall oxidizing it to become components as fuel to change to acetyl coa to enter citric acid cycle) Recall amino acids to be used need the NH ammonia group removed as urea to be used as fuel The amino acid is converted into the acetyl coa through the addition of carboxyl groups or other chemicals Protein oxidation in men and women at rest pre and posttraining, the significance lies in the change in protein. Pre training there is more protein being used than after training where the body starts to use more fats instead of breaking down muscle Essential Fats Males 3 Essential Fats Females 12 Body Composition Models (1) Behnke Model 2 Component Model = fat mass + lean body mass Fat mass = nonessential fat Lean body mass = fatfree mass + essential fat (2) BrozekSiri fat mass + fat free mass (nonfat tissue) Body density assumes FFM is constant Fat compartment 0.900 Fat Free Compartment 1.100
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