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Kinesiology 3339A/B Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Performance-Enhancing Substance, Phosphocreatine, Resting Metabolic RateExam

Course Code
Kinesiology 3339A/B
Peter Lemon
Study Guide

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Ergogenic Effects of Selected Substances
o Peak power during repeat 10 second efforts increased significantly
o Creatine significantly increased peak power after 1 sprint (2-6)
o Performance enhancement due to increased muscle phospho-creatine stores
o 8% increase in PCr/ATP
Most athletic competitions are won by 1% - 8% can be a game-changer
Carbohydrates (CHO):
o High intake for a few days prior to exercise extends time to exhaustion vs high fat or mixed
o This is due to enhanced CHO stores in the muscle and liver
o RQ = Respiratory Quotient
Changes based on whether fat or carbs are metabolized

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o Exercised for significantly longer on a high carb diet
o Gender differences; well trained women frequently under eat relative to their energy
expenditure leading to adverse effects on performance and/or health due to nutrient
o This may be due to a significant ability of women to down-regulate their metabolism
Women survive starving situations better
o For men, only weight-class athletes ate less
Muscle Size
Creatine also increases muscle size and body mass over the first few days due to increases in
intracellular water
Chronic creatine ingestion and training enhances muscle growth relative to training alone
o Super-training effect - can train harder due to an anabolic effect of creatine, i.e., the
increased muscle water may stimulate muscle protein synthesis
Muscles being bigger (with water) makes you stronger chronically because they allow you to train
harder and longer
CHO and Performance
Immediate post CHO-depleting exercise time is especially important (first 30-60 minutes following
exercise) or repletion of depleted stores will be reduced/delayed
Athletes didn't really recover overnight
Recovery is related to the amount of carbs you eat
Chronic CHO Ingestion (CHO Loading)

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Takes several days to load up
Decrease exercise as you increase carb load
CHO Ingestion During Exercise
Providing CHO during exercise helps maintain blood sugar and can enhance performance
Athletes given a glucose drink were able to exercise for 60 minutes longer
Nutrition - intake and utilization of food/food supplements (ingestion, digestion, absorption,
transport, and metabolism)
Food - contains/provides nutrients
Nutrient - substance that you must consume (body cannot produce) to prevent disease and/or to
maintain health
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