Criminal Law Actus Reus
Most Crimes are composed of physical aspects (ACTUS REUS) and mental aspects
Beyond a Reasonable Doubts:
The standard that must be met by the prosecution's evidence in a criminal prosecution: that no other
logical explanation can be derived from the facts except that the defendant committed the crime,
thereby overcoming the presumption that a person is innocent until proven guilty.
Actus Reus must satisfy the following conditions:
a.Voluntariness: there must be a willpower to do an act whether the accused knew
or not that it was prohibited by law (No AR unless willing mind).
(i.e: A is aiming at a target. The physically stronger X takes hold of A's
hand and forces him to point the gun at B and pull the trigger. B is hit and
killed. He caused B's death, but he lacked the voluntariness "act" which
meant he did not have any actus reus)
a.Commission (Intent to commit): Section 291 Everyone one who, without
reasonable justification or excuse and with intent to extort or gain ANYTHING
(Does not have to tangible)….is guilty of an indictable offence
R. v. Bird Bird induces Salmon to allow him to use her body for sexual
intercourse; in this sense he gained SOMETHING from her which came
squarely within the meaning of the word "ANYTHING" as used.
a.Causation (connecting conduct with the consequence):
o The action that caused the death might have been prevented (simply killed
The action th