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Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Giardia Lamblia, Microsporum, Wolbachia

Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
Stephanie Kelly
Study Guide

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Professor W.D. Colby
- Not responsible for therapeutics
- Common names + scientific names (Latin)
- Ectoparasites- insects, spiders
-Enteric Protozoa-
- Blood & tissue protozoa
- Helminthes/worms
Enteric Protozoa
- Often associate with travel, both domestic and foreign
- Longer incubation period than bacteria and viruses (the time from acquisition of
the infection until symptoms are shown. If you know the incubation period of the
pathogens you are dealing with you can rule the world)
- Symptoms may not develop until late in a trip or following return
- Symptoms may be prolonged and/or recurrent
- The presence of any protozoa (even nonpathogenic varieties) in stool indicates
exposure to contaminated food or water
- Cysts (not metabolically active but hardy, withstand environmental conditions,
pass from one host to another, require intermediate hosts) are the infective form,
trophozoites are the active form
- Diagnosis depends on lab tests (can’t just tell by symptoms, try the drugs even
though you’re not sure what the person has)
Etiology of Traveler’s Diarrhea
Diarrhea: more than 300g of stools a day
neurogenic diarrhea: anxiety…nervous, hypersecretion…
1. Bacterial: 85%
2. Parasitic (protozoal or helminthic): 5-15%
3. Viral: <5% (the more people that are infected at once, it must be viral infection)
Commonly Travel Associated
-Giardia intestinalis most common
- Entamoeba histolytica
-Dientamoeba fragilis
Enteric Protozoa Less Common in Travelers
-cryptosporidium hominis & parvum
-isospora belli
Diagnosis of Enteric protozoa

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- stools for ova & parasites (when someone comes in with diarrhea, you get 2
bottles of liquid, red: transport medium. Clear: fixative that kills all bacteria.
Sample is preserved and can be properly mounted and stained for examination.)
- examination of permanent stained smear is best
- there are many nonpathnogeic enteric protozoa (shed intermittently)
- three negative stools to rule out pathogens
- five negative stools to rule out Giardia (because they are so small)
Giardia intestinalis (lamblia)
- Worldwide via contaminated water (beaver fever)- correlation of water that has
beavers in them…
- Infects duodenum (first run after stomach, no one knows why)
- Noninvasive
- Resistant to chlorination (municipal water supply is filtered and chlorinated)
- Iodination more effective (works better)
- Incubation period 9-15 days
- Soft, foul stools with flatus (lots of farts, surgical, perforated bowel, need to
fart…need to pass gas), bloating, gurgling, weight loss, fatigue
- Residual lactose intolerance common (relative term. Strange groups of people that
evolved in Northwestern Europe. They were called Caucasians. They only survive
by consuming dairy product. Most racial groups in the worlds as adults are lactose
intolerant. Many Asians, Africans, Aborigines, they would get a lot of
gastrointestinal distress because they can’t digest lactose. When the bacteria do
that they produce large amounts of gas. This is very common. Caucasians can eat
dairy products all their lives because of selection factor. When talking about
lactose intolerant we’re talking about people who were normally lactose tolerant.)
- Rx metronidazole (treat with this. Can’t drink with alcohol with)
Giardia intestinalis- Trophozoite Cyst
need bowel stool sample
“eye”- nucleus
Entamoeba Histolytica
- Worldwide

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- Symptoms range from nondysenteric (alternating constipation/diarrhea, lower
abdominal cramps, bloating, flatus-not foul smelling- and fatigue) to dysentery
(mega cramps, bloody stool, often jelly like in consistency)
- Colon ulceration may lead to systemic spread via bloodstream to liver, lungs,
- Amebic serology (when you have antibodies in the blood) is usually positive with
invasive disease
Entamoeba histolytica- Trophozoite Cysts
Peripheral chromatin is distributed evenly, can have up to 6 nuclei.
Colonoscopy- Amebiasis
Amebic Liver Abscess CT Scan
Computerized X-ray and renders the body in slices
Can’t manipulate spine from outside (chiropractic)
Abscess- black area
CT scan- look at them from feet up
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