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Microbiology and Immunology 3300B Study Guide - Final Guide: Reactive Oxygen Species, Mycobacterium Leprae, Chemokine

Microbiology and Immunology
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Microimmune Lecture 20 Study Notes
1. What happens when we are infected with a pathogen?
-wound healing induced, complement destruction (picked up by macrophages/DC in
the tissue)
-DC migrate to lymphnodes, phagocytosis, NK cells activated, cytokines and
chemokines produced
-pathogens phagocytosed in lymphoid tissues
-adaptive immunity initiated by migrating DC
-infection cleared by specific antibodies, T cell-dependent macrophage activation
and cytotoxic T cells
2. What virus has coevolved successfully?
-JC virus
-infected 90% of all humans
-initial infection is in the GI tract and largely asymptomatic (infects us at very young
age; contaminated water or food)
-almost everybody has it but it doesn’t harm its host; good at spreading; live long
-pathology only in immunosuppressed patients
-non dangerous environmental bacteria/virus and converts it into a human
3. What virus has not coevolved successfully?
-infection is very rare, occurred in the 1970s
-highly lethal (50-100%) mortality
-person-to-person transmission is rare: this is because rapid death is caused;
otherwise the virus is easily spread
-persistent/latent infections do not occur
4. Discuss evolution of malaria/O type etc.
-malaria appeared 200mya when mammals appeared
-humans and chimps diverge from the same common ancestor
-human/chimp strain of malaria appeared 200mya
-we developed the o blood type after splitting from chimps 5 mya
-o protects from malaria
-begin to see mutations protecting us against malaria in the areas where it is
endemic; as humans migrate out of Africa 80 000 ya
-malaria evolving in response to these changes
5. Discuss the evolution of HIV.

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-women/family in the sex trade frequently exposed to HIV but never got it
-they sequenced the MHC1 and MHC 11 alleles; found that MHC 11 were enriched
with alleles that were protected allowing them to survive
-the protective alleles were: HLA-A26802 and HLA-DRB1*01
6. What were the first cases of HIV?
-oldest HIV-1 was in 1959
-suspected species “jumped” into humas in 1931 (HIV-1) and in 1940/1945 (HIV-2
7. What are the goals of a host pathogen?
-minimize loss of fitness
-select successful MHC haplotypes (get the right MHC to interact)
-selecting resistance genes
-“selection” of less-virulent pathogen strains
-host wants to survive and reproduce; selecting for pathogens that aren’t
8. What are the goals of a pathogen?
-maximize reproductive success
-host survival (at least until transmitted)
-avoid immunity
-modulation of virulence
9. To be a pathogen you must…
-be able to survive in the human b ody (pH, temperature etc)
-be able to avoid or modulate the immune response to allow your own survival
-most microorganisms are not pathogens
-most pathogens have immune-avoidance mechanisms
10. How does Borellia prevent opsonization?
-causes lyme disease
-coats itself in factor H
-inhibits complement deposition
-bound by exotoxin which binds factor H and turns it off
-factor H only binds to self proteins to regulate it; it is bound by an exotoxin which
will turn it off so that it can bind to the bacteria
11. How does Syphillis prevent opsonization?
-causes treponema
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