MIT 2000 Midterm Review 1.docx

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Department
Media, Information and Technoculture
Course
Media, Information and Technoculture 2000F/G
Professor
Patrick Brown
Semester
Fall

Description
Week 1: Oral Society Communication History in Canada Ong, “Some Psychodynamics of Orality” (p. 5-9)  Without writing, words have no visual presence  A primary oral culture values sounds; however, sound is temporary – once you say something, it is gone – there is no holding onto that action  once they are uttered, they disappear o This gives sound a special relationship to time – you cannot stop and keep sound like your eyes can stop and keep words o Some phrases do not make sense in an oral society (i.e., to “look something up” would be to “recall something”)  Words have great power; sound is dynamic (constant change) o “Sound cannot be sounding without the use of power.” (pg. 6) o A hunter can see, smell, touch and taste a buffalo – but if he hears a buffalo, he better watch out  (in this sense, sound is dynamic)  Oral peoples think of names as conveying power over things o Ex: Adam naming all animals o Naming gives human beings power over what they name – without learning various names, one is powerless to understand o Chirographic and typographic people think of names as labels/tags affixed to an object – oral people have no sense of a name as being a tag – they have no sense of a name as something that can be seen  “Written or printed representations of words can be labels; real, spoken words cannot be.” (pg. 6)  Restricting words to just sounds determines thought processes – (not only modes of expression) o Can recall information from the past very easily o In the absence of writing, there is nothing outside the thinker (text) to enable one to produce the same line of thought again or even verify if its been done before  Therefore, “Sustained thought in an oral culture is tied to communication.” (pg. 6) o To recall: Must think of memorable thoughts in mnemonic patterns – your thoughts must come into being in heavily rhythmic balanced patterns (repetitions, alliterations, etc.)  Mnemonic also determine syntax (grammar)  To think through something without pattern would be a waste of time – could never be recovered with any effectiveness as it could be with writing o Oral societies must invest time to repeat what they have learned  Therefore, intellect and knowledge is highly regarded and valued – societies value wise old men and women – In today’s written culture, print downgrades the importance of old men and women and favours young discoverers of something new Friesen, “Interpreting Aboriginal Cultures” (pg. 21-29)  Harold Innis: ‘Aboriginal people are fundamental to the growth of Canadian institutions’ o Aboriginal politics and culture makes them fundamental to Canada 1 o Their dominant mode of communication was speech  Aboriginals value continuity (“historical connectedness” pg. 22)  First Nations people experienced basic dimensions of time and space in terms of their relation to the natural world o Time and space vary depending on the society and era they experience o Time is a very specific thing (minutes, seconds, etc.), but space is very vague because we can surpass its limitations  Time is also subject to revisions in stories-not fixed/absolute  Traditional societies use everyday calculations of time built on natural occurrences o First Nations people understood time in ecological and structural (generational) terms rather than calendric terms  Ex: They used temporal units rather than spatial units to measure canoe routes, etc.  Ecological Time  Solar and Lunar Cycles  Structural Time  Passing of Generations  Aboriginals used significant events in marking days – not absolute time in a cycle  Another approach: Creating links between the reality of everyday and the spiritual reality as mythic o Ex: Story about a man who stayed with foxes for 20 days and then was able to speak to them and catch them whenever he wanted  Links reality and spirituality  Living in mythic rather than historic time – these two often got interwoven and indecipherable  Different cultures shape the environment according to different principles  Telling stories and making speeches are among the most valued arts in aboriginal cultures o Certain rituals convey messages  Ex: A child’s first hunt, etc.  Today, people try to understand what the Aboriginal signs meant to gain an understanding of our heritage  Characteristics of Aboriginal Culture: 1. Culture constructed on dimension of time 2. Unity of humans, animals, and natural universe as an accessible link between this world and a dream trail 3. Relied on the land  “These three points, which emphasize the role of the land in traditional culture and the unity of experience between this world and another, constitute fundamental characteristics of a perception of time and space that differ from the conventional perceptions today” (pg. 27). 4. Human interactions within these distinctive time-space dimensions occurred in known locations o Aboriginals relied on the spoken word – today, religious perspectives rely on the spoken word o Aboriginals did not receive print well (because they were all about story telling) – This European impact negatively affected their culture o “Aboriginal Radicals” wanted to embrace literacy, as they saw the bible was a way to communicate with God (believed that the priests were communicating through the bible)  Literacy and Christianity challenged Aboriginal Cultures 2 o Used “like weapons within them.” (pg. 28)  However, Aboriginal culture (orality as a dominant mode of communication) is not completely gone – it has been vanquished, not completely destroyed.  Why? – Because their belief in an unbroken chain between the past and present still remains Innis, “Empire and Communications” (pg. 35-39)  Difficult to indicate the effects of the development of the pulp and paper industry because of the late development and complexity of the problem  concentration on staple products has involved problems not only in the supply area but also in the demand area  Concerned with the use of certain tools that proved to be effective in the interpretation of economic history of Canada and the British Empire  Order: Clay and papyrus, then parchment, then paper  Commutation=curtail part in the function of a government o For a government to be effective communication must efficient o “The effective government of large areas depends to a very important extent on the efficiency of communication.” (pg. 37)  The concepts of space and time reflect the significance of media to civilization  Innis’ study leads to applying the dimensions of time and space to various forms of communication, and the subsequent effects of the various forms of media on society and societal structures o Media that emphasize time: Time-binding media was durable (i.e., parchment, clay and stone); but covered little space  suited to the development of architecture and sculpture.  Materials that emphasize time favour decentralization and hierarchical types of institutions  Ex: Time-biased media = consistent and stable over a long period of time o Media that emphasizes space: Space-binding media was more impermanent/temporary, light and less durable (i.e., papyrus and paper): covered long distances but did not withstand the tests of time)  Materials that emphasize space favour centralization and systems of government less hierarchical in character  Ex: Space-biased media = captured a large audience, eliminates spare barriers/far reaching yet changes regularly (newspaper, internet).  Time biased society vs. Space biased society o These are important barriers to overcome o The key is the issue of communication – Remember that it is a bias, not an absolute o Innis concluded that this was one of the factors that help empires to sustain themselves because they had a central system of knowledge-they kept everything centralized in one area  We can conveniently divide the history of the West into two periods; the writing period and the printing period 3 o Writing Period: Importance of clay, papyrus, parchment and then paper o Printing Period: Concentration on paper as a medium, introduction of machinery to manufacture paper o It is difficult for generations who grew up in a written/printing tradition to appreciate the oral tradition o “A change in the type of medium implies a change in the type of appraisal (judgment) and hence, makes it difficult for one civilization to understand another.” (pg. 38)  Innis attributed the rise and fall of empires (Egypt, Green, Rome, etc.) to the dynamic balance between the use of space-binding and time-binding media o This balance was one between creating ideas and maintaining knowledge at the center (time-binding) of an empire and builds it on solid ideals, and subsequently enforcing/sustaining (space-binding) the empire over a long period of time. o Centralized power  Innis also warned against the effects of a largely space-biased media system currently prevalent in the Western world, which tips the scales towards numerous centers of power as opposed to the retention and maintenance of knowledge in one main center  Thus, the arrival of space-biased media has resulted in a more present-minded culture, and caused a diminishing of a culture deeply seeded in its roots.  Writing enhanced a capacity for abstract thinking o “The art of writing provided man with a transpersonal memory. Men were given an artificially extended and verifiable memory of objects and events not present to sight or recollection…writing enormously enhanced a capacity for abstract thinking, which had been evident in the growth of language in the oral tradition. Names in themselves were abstractions…An extended social structure strengthened the position of an individual leader with military power who gave orders to agents who received and executed them. The sword and pen worked together…contributed to the advancement of knowledge and thought. The written record signed, sealed, and swiftly transmitted was essential to military power and the extension of the government…Records and messages displaced the collective memory.” (pg. 38-39)  This is because individuals applied their minds to symbols rather then concrete things  Communication was essential to military power and extension of the government: this is how a state could become an empire  Written records were essential to the future as they provided people the chance to interpret the past  Ex: Indigenous People – no written media; cannot have consistency of messages across space  limit on how far ideas can go  Time Biased: No archive – gives certain people a lot more power; conservative – limit on geographical expansion  Is our society spatial biased or time biased?  Cell phones: spatially biased and oral technology  McLuhan – Return on Orality  One can communicate orally – but no memory or historical component to the information 4  Facebook: Time biased because there is a record of information – elements of both  This reading places our society in relation to other societies – use in context to understand here we are as a community and to understand our power relations as well Kovarik “The Printing Revolution, Introduction to Section 1” (p. 13-16)  “The printing revolution was the pivotal development in history, the turning point in the transition between the Medieval and modern worlds.” (pg. 13)  “Printing allowed the spread of knowledge and challenges to authority by enabling mass communication among people who had previously been linked only by personal and small group communication.” (pg. 13) th o Industrialization of media technologies in 19 century (telegraph/steam-powered printing) created opportunity for larger audiences and new institutions to serve public  Digital media diminished the industrialization of media technologies’ role during the 20 century, by decreasing the cost of information and the relative value of the product as well o “We study history not only to appreciate the people of the past, but also as a guide to the possibilities of the future.” (pg. 14)  “Printing was the first mass medium in human history…long before printing and even…before writing, people communicated in…an oral culture.” (pg. 14) o We are pre-wired to talk and communicate – reading and writing need to be learned; reading is not pre-wired into human brains like language but this changed with the printing revolution in the 1450s  Most reading took place among elites in scholarly, religious government institutions o Most humans communicated through song, traditions and history within an oral culture  “Oral cultures can accurately transmit important information from generation to generation, but these abilities are subject to the limitations of a culture and human memory.” (pg. 15)  Marshall McLuhan believed that radio created a new oral culture that salvaged some of this lost sense of community  Theorists believe that the progression from symbols to a written language was the first real communication revolution because it was a leap forward from natural ability to a revolutionary new ability o “Writing was the first human communications revolution, but confined to social elites.” (pg. 16)  “…The combination of writing and flexible communications made possible to build empires.” (pg. 16) o Writing introduced a change in thinking  “Mechanical reproduction of writing and art…*contributed+ to a loss of social ritual and personal identity.” (Theorist Walter Benjamin – pg. 16)  Introduced a more linear homogenous approach to thinking o Writing allowed humans to conserve their intellectual resources, save what needed to be saved without having to keep all details in their heads 5  “This had enormous effect on human life.” (pg. 16) Week 2: Writing/Print Culture Communication History in Canada Havelock, “From The Literate Revolution in Greece and Its Cultural Consequences” (p. 10-15) The Greek Alphabet  Greek Alphabet altered human culture o 700 BCE o “The Greeks did not just invent an alphabet; they invented literacy and the literature basis of modern thought.” (pg. 10) o Letters shapes and values passed through a period of localization before being standardized throughout Greece and once it was standardized, there were two competing versions: Eastern and Western o The effects of the alphabet were only really understood after the invention of the alphabet  It democratized literacy by placing the skill of reading within the reach of children at the stage where they were still learning the sounds of their vocabulary o Dependent upon the organization and maintenance of school instruction at the elementary level (social requirement) o Acrophonic Principle = Imprint the mechanical sounds of letters in a fixed series on a child’s brain while simultaneously correlating them with shapes Social and Political Effects of Literacy  New script may have changed the content of the human mind o Psychological result: once script was learned, you did not have to think about it o The Semitic names became meaningless  Construction of Roman literature upon Greek models o The new Greek system could identify the phonemes of any language accurately o Fluency of reading depended on fluency of recognition  speed of recognition (the secret of the alphabetic invention) Aftermath of the Alphabet  The alphabet abolished the need for memorization and rhythm (no longer mnemonic)  The alphabet expanded the knowledge available to the human mind o No more need for brain power-human knowledge expanded because the energy used to remember was now being put towards acquisition of further knowledge o The alphabet stimulated the thinking of novel thought – new ways of speaking about human life and new ways of thinking about it o Children in school used sand and slate – not papyrus o Production of script and resources available were restricted beyond the reader as long as production remained a handicraft (pg. 14)  “Calligraphy becomes the enemy of literacy” (pg. 15)  Alphabetic literacy – to overcome limitations and achieve full potential had to await the printing press o Alphabet needed the support of further technologies  The alphabet had to wait for the scientific revolution in order to be properly implemented into a society in a functional way 6 o Shows the dependency each thing has on another Eisenstein, “The Rise of the Reading Public” (p. 16-20)  What did McLuhan mean by the ‘making of typographical man’? o McLuhan made people more alert to the fact that the advent of writing had social and psychological consequences. o Development of silent reading during the Middle Ages  silent scanning  Printing did not introduce silent reading  it encouraged an increasing number of “silent instructors” o Habits of silent reading developed during the Middle Ages (before print) amongst some literate groups  Although the habit of silent reading of scribes predated Gutenberg, it became much more pervasive in society after the invention of print (shift from script  print) th o This advent (in the mid 15 century) increased the popularity of silent reading of scribes o In addition, it is important to note that the spoken word never diminished; as printed material flourished, lectures and seminars never died o In fact, the spoken word could now be augmented by printed material.  Although printing industry flourished, it did not remove preachers/speakers from their place  “Although the textbook industry flourished, classroom lectures never died.” (pg. 16)  The way in which speeches, poems, songs, debates, and lectures were presented was undoubtedly altered as a result of printed material  A shift amongst rural villagers was seen, such that exceptional literates replaced the exceptional storytellers, who would read out loud from cheap printed literature that came across their paths th o This was before the mass literacy movements of the 19 century, and therefore the bulk of the output from these old medieval texts was delivered by the select literature few to a largely hearing public.  A hearing public vs. A reading minority o A hearing public is communal and binding o A reading public is more fragmented th  Along with printed materials came a ‘sullen silence’ of newspaper readers in the 17 century, affecting some forms of sociability  Degree of secularization – public no longer had to rely on the church for local news o As time passed, the monthly gazette was succeeded by the weekly, and finally by the daily paper o In addition, more and more provincial papers were founded, all resulting in a displacement of pulpit by press, since churchgoers could now learn about local affairs in silence at home o This inevitably led not only to people being more secluded, but also in a weakening of close inter-personal ties within the local community.  Weakened local community ties (i.e., those who would normally gather to hear a speech, now can read a newspaper individually)  “To hear an address delivered, people have to come together; to read a printed report encourages individuals to draw apart.” (pg. 18) 7  “What the orators of Rome and Athens were in the midst of a people assembled, men of letters are in the midst of a dispersed people.” (pg. 18) o Shift in communications may have changed what it meant to participate in public affairs  “The wide distribution of identical bits of information provided an impersonal link between people who were unknown to each other.” (pg. 18)  The reading public was not only more dispersed, but also more atomistic (divided into separate and often disparate elements) and individualistic than a hearing one  Group gatherings, such as at coffee shops and public readings were as a result, more impersonal, where an individual now became a solitary reader o While communal solidarity was diminished, vicarious participation was enhanced  New forms of group identity began to compete with older identity  Society became more-so a bundle of discrete units; but while local ties/relationships were loosened, larger collective units were beginning to form, connecting people that were distances apart  Populations, although pulled apart socially, were being brought together by more of an impersonal communication from afar – an invisible advocate from distances could address a population o “The exchange of goods and services…were all eventually affected.” (pg. 19)  In such light, rulers of the time gained a new power to affect mass consciousness via prints, portraits and engravings (political propaganda!). o Circulation of prints and engravings made it easier on a empire/dynasty to impress a personal presence on mass consciousness in a new way  Examples: o The English crown under Henry VIII and Thomas Cromwell made systematic use of both parliament and press to win public support for the Reformation… o Founding of the first royally sponsored newspaper in Europe by Louis XIII in 1789  Traditional tensions between court and country, crown and estates, were aggravated by propaganda wars. Carey, “A Cultural Approach to Communication” (p. 62-70) th  Two alternative conceptions of communication alive in American culture since the 19 century: o Transmission View: Spread of information over large distances for control (dominant today) o Ritual View  Both stemming from religious origins, thought they refer to different regions of religious experience  * These two views do not counter each other, but rather, coexist Transmission View: Extension of the message in space  Most common form of communication  Control of people  Central idea of this view, which predominates our culture, is the transmission of signals or messages over distance for the purpose of control. o In other words, “communication is a process whereby messages are transmitted and distributed in space for the control of distance and people.” (pg. 62) 8  It is based on the desire to increase the speed and effect of messages as they travel in space  Formed from metaphor of geography or transportation  The movement of goods or people was considered essentially the same thing as the movement of information in the 19 century, and both processes were described as ‘communication’ o Movement of goods and movement of information were thought to be the same thing o Transportation and communication have always been inseparably linked!  Although the rise of the transmission view of communication can be partly attributed to political and commercialistic motivation, the major motive behind this movement in space was religious: (i.e., Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa, Puratans in New England, New Jerusalem in Massachusetts.)  Spread was based on a desire to escape Europe, and facilitate the movement of the white Europeans across the globe. (Movement in space was in itself a redemptive act)  The connection and movement in space between the Christian community of Europe and heathens (not belonging to a religious group) of America served as a way to establish and extend the kingdom of God. Moral meaning of transportation/communication = establishment and extension of God’s kingdom on Earth, to ‘save the heathen’, and to bring closer the day of salvation. Middle of the 19 century:  Telegraph broke the identity of communication and transportation  However, the purpose was to spread the Christian message (the word of God) efficiently and effectively  Gardner Spring said that we were on the ‘border of a spiritual harvest because thought now travels by steam and magnetic wire.’ (pg. 63)  Batchelder: ‘Almighty himself had constructed the railroad for missionary purposes.’ (pg. 63)  Morse: In response to the first telegraphic message, asked ‘What Hath God Wrought?’, emphasizing that the purpose was not to spread ‘regular’ information. (pg. 63)  “The new technology of communication came to be seen as the ideal device for the conquest of space and populations.” (pg. 63)  Religious metaphors fell way with the coming of science, and the technology of communication itself became the center of thought  The telegraph was now important because it is involved in the transmission of thought  Communication was now seen more as a way to disseminate knowledge, ideas and information farther and faster with the goal of control (people and space)  This transmission view has dominated our societies since then  Of course, with the advent of new communications technologies however, there are always religious implications, as well as the use of these technologies by religious groups. Ritual View: The maintenance of society in time  This view plays a minor role in our world, and is defined as communication linked to ‘sharing’, ‘participation’, ‘association’, ‘fellowship’, and the ‘possession of a common faith’.  It is regarded as an ‘archaic’ view, exploiting the common roots of the terms ‘commonness’, ‘community’, ‘communion’, and ‘communication’ o “Draws persons together in fellowship and commonality.” (pg. 65) 9 o Older than the transmission view, listed at “archaic” in the dictionary  Unlike the transmission view, the ritual view is directed at the maintenance of society in time, i.e., the representation of shared beliefs. (NOT the act of imparting information or extension of messages in space)  Very religious based (even in its name) and highlights the importance of the prayer rather than the sermon o “Explicitly religious origins.” (pg. 65)  In other words, this view serves in the construction and maintenance of an ordered, meaningful cultural world that can serve as a control and container for human action  Provides confirmation, represents an underlying order of things, and manifests an ongoing and fragile social process through the projection of community ideals (plays, dance, architecture, news stories, etc.)  NOT dominant in our society o The ritual view is much less dominant partly because ‘culture’, and especially American culture is difficult to concretely define o We are inherently obsessively individualistic  “Science provides culture-free truth, whereas culture provides ethnocentric error” (pg. 65) Newspaper from a ‘transmission’ point of view:  Instrument of disseminating news and knowledge, sometimes entertainment, in larger and larger packages over greater distances o Newspaper distributes information Newspaper from a ‘ritual’ point of view:  Nothing new is learned, but a particular view of the world is portrayed and confirmed  Thus, what the reader is reading is not pure information, but rather, “a portrayal of the contending forces in the world.” (pg.65)  The reader “joins a world of contending forces as an observer at a play.” (pg.65) essentially being a supporter or opponent of a particular stance of an issue  Thus, the newspaper is nothing but a dramatically satisfying account of historical reality, a form of culture invented by a particular class at a particular point in time (middle class during th the 18 century)  Less as sending or gaining information and more as attending a mass  Ritual view sees news as drama, not information – it exists in historical time and invites our participation in social roles within it *Neither of these counter-posed views of communication necessarily denies what the other affirms. Kovarik “The Printing Revolution: From 1455 to 1814” (p. 17-45) Foundations of the Printing Revolution  The printing revolution transformed Europe o It “changed the appearance and state of the whole world” by providing cheaper, quicker and more accurate communication across once-formidable boundaries of space and time 10  The printing revolution created religious and political revolutions – helped release best and worse of human nature o “*Accelerated+ the exchange of ideas and *removed+ the barriers to communication.” (pg. 17)  Lead to more literacy and expanded knowledge  Lead European world to emerge in the 1700s with the new commitment to o Reason o Tolerance o Freedom Technological Context of Printing  Increased availability of cheap, portable paper o Earlier cultures used clay/stone which was cheap and durable but not flexible and portable  Cheap paper became widely available around 1400s o Vellum and parchment served elite readers  Papyrus was a widely used as a less expensive medium but it was brittle and not as durable as paper  Technical leap forward when monasteries began using presses to make impressions on paper from blocks of wood with raised areas to hold ink  Printing revolution occurred when a key technical problem was solved within a supporting business and cultural context o “Gutenberg found the right technology at the right time.” (pg. 18) Gutenberg’s Insight: The Original “Matrix”  The first man to demonstrate the practicability of movable type was Johannes Gutenberg (c.1398-1468)  Gutenberg worked on perfecting the key technical problem of mass producing books (15 years of development) o Problem: wood blocks did not hold up well to thousands of impressions  The growing demand for books of all kinds led Gutenberg to consider how to serve expanding market and make a profit  The Problem: The wood blocks did not hold up well to thousands of impressions  Guttenberg’s Solution: individual pieces of “moveable” type could be made from an alloy of lead with tin and antimony o Alloy would melt at a low temperature and poured into a “matrix” that held the blanks for the different letters of the alphabets o The type could be re-arranged for another set of pages once the pages have been printed so long as the metal was not worn out o Once the type wore out, it could be melted and recast in the same type foundries (a factory that produces metal type castings) o Individual letters, easily movable, were put together to form words; words separated by blank spaces formed lines of type; and lines of type were brought together to make up a page. Since letters could be arranged into any format, an infinite variety of texts could be printed by reusing and resetting the type.  Very first book: Gutenberg Bible  also best seller  Gutenberg’s printing method allowed: o Cost was far lower o Other innovations were now possible 11 o Allow rapid expansion of exact duplicates of information that had once been laboriously (and sometimes inaccurately) copied by hand o Printing allowed standardized knowledge that could be preserved and spread rapidly - Knowledge was difficult to remember and share, o Old ideas could be contrasted, contradictions revealed and new ideas developed  Printing revolution regrouped people with old/new skills o Old: paper making, ink manufacturing leather working, book binding o New: press work, type setting, foundry type casting Printing and the Protestant Reformation  Usually there were only a few bibles in church, chained to a pulpit, closely guarded as most valuable possession  “The church had an exclusive monopoly on information and enforced it efficiently and ruthlessly.” (pg. 21)  Printing was first a divine gift  the church ordered thousands of copies of the Bible to be printed for use of the priests  Sudden removal of barriers to religious knowledge (what printing did) had an unexpected impact o Church lost exclusive power- now ordinary people could be their own priest and reformers could spark far more serious opposition o For the first time, ordinary people could read the Bible for themselves  Martin Luther and Printing  Martin Luther nailed his famous “95 thesis” to a church door- it was quickly printed and widely distributed  It was the subject of controversy throughout Europe- it amplified his voice to an extent that astonished everyone  Printing was a new power- agent of freedom delivering them from bondage to the Roman church o “Printing was recognized as a new power and publicity came into its own. The printing presses transformed the field of communications and fathered an international revolt.” (pg. 22)  Thousands of people were executed for owning the wrong version of the Bible  Religious warfare broke out across Europe (25-40% of pop perished)  English throne returned to Catholic in 1553 and “Bloody” Queen Mary ordered hundreds of executions  When Mary died, Elizabeth promised religious tolerance  Protestants gained power with publication of John Foxe’s Book of Martyrs that had strong emphasis on Bloody Mary’s reign and designed to turn public opinion away from Catholic Church and toward Church of England  Religious warfare simmered down with Treaty of Westphalia- major powers of Europe agreed each king would determine religion of his own nation  Religion continued to be an important factor of conflicts that plagued Europe in the late 20 century  “As the horror of religious warfare declined, the need for religious tolerance became a primary ideal in the minds of Enlightenment thinkers.” (pg. 23)  The Slow Emergence of Religious Tolerance 12  Printing plunged Europe into centuries of religious warfare and also amplified calls for tolerance and reason  Tolerance was a large part of the new creed of printing and it was within this culture that the Renaissance gave way to Enlightenment  Printers wanted to expand markets but capitalistic motive was not central point  “Europe was on move and enterprising publisher was enemy of narrow minds.” (pg. 24)  Ben Franklin: Printers could be considered instruments of tolerance because they believe that people who differ in opinion, ought to have the advantage of being heard. Scientific and Technical Impacts of The Printing Revolution  “Printing was ‘the most obvious and probably the most important’ element in capturing the scientific and technological revolution.” (pg. 25)  It spread: o News of exploration Ex: Christopher Columbus’ explorations spread rapidly in the 1490s o Descriptions of new technologies o Press also influenced the way geographic discoveries were understood o Scientists adopted printing press as part of their educational and research efforts  Improvements in medicine  Insights into astronomy  After printing it was the exact and repeatable message “that carried authority and influence” (pg. 25)  “While the church continued suppressing many new ideas – an old way of thinking was doomed by the new media revolution.” (pg. 26)  As knowledge expanded, role of printing in forming communities became appreciated Political Impacts Of The Printing Revolution  Along with Bible, many other works were translated in vernacular, leading to standardized national language  Circulation of printed books in home language created standard for writing and speaking a language that was highly unsettled at the time  It was an active force in history, when the struggle for power was a struggle for the mastery of public opinion  News in Print  Daily newsletter: “Acta Diurna” conveyed ofstcial acts of the senate and news of other interest (crime, divorce) and was considered 1 example of mass media publication  Book publishing dominated the printing trade after Gutenberg’s invention caught on  Four basic kinds of news publications emerged between the late 1500s and late 1700s: o “Relation”: A one-time publication about a single event (i.e., a battle) – usually printing on a small sheet o “Coronto”: News from a foreign country – often sold as a small bound book o “Diurnal”: Regular publication that covered one subject – typically events within the government o “Mercury”: Cover events from a single country for 6 months at a time – small bound book  First Newspapers  Johann Carolus: Owner of French book printing company in France 13  1605: Decided to use the new media to save himself some time from copying business letters by hand – began publishing the first newspaper  Censorship And Freedom Of The Press  Printing was considered dangerous by political rulers of Europe and 4 basic approaches to censorship were put into effect: (1) Licensing of a printing company itself (2) Pre-press approval of each book (3) Taxation and stamps on regular publications (4) Prosecution for treason against government or libel of individuals  Catholic countries (state & church) censored publication  in most European nations, no book was able to be printed/distributed without permission of the Church or the King  Punishments were given to those who produced treasonous articles, for questioning the church, or advocating or envisioning the death of the kingdeath penalty  Talented printers moved to nations where they were free to publish o Ex: Holland was considered a “haven” for intellectuals  Press Freedom And The Enlightenment  New marketplace of ideas came from: John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson o They insisted human rights were natural and not simply handed down by government or kings o The structure of the government needed to be balanced in order to allow people to act according to their natural rights  Franklin: “Without freedom of thought there can be no such thing as wisdom and no such thing as public liberty without freedom of speech…the right of every man, as far as by it he does not hurt and control the right of another.” (pg. 30)  David Hume: defended freedom of the press  Strongest voice of French Enlightenment; Francois Voltaire: Think for yourselves and let others enjoy the privilege to do so too o Believed in toleration; the rule of law and freedom of opinion  “I disapprove of what you say, but I shall defend to the death your right to say it.” (pg. 30)  Freedom of press was among natural freedoms and among the first freedoms that included religion, speech and assembly to be recognized during American Revolution  Formed the basis of modern international understanding of human rights  Political Revolutions “A Tumult Of Journalists”  Print media has special relationship to political revolution  Every revolution had its own unique causes and effects  Revolutionary changes in media may be followed by changes in entire structure of society  “The printing press was not the cause of the political revolutions…but at the same time it cannot be ignored as a vehicle.” (pg. 31) 14  Political change not only marked by clash of classes/cultures but is often an outcome of changes in way people exchange ideas th th  17 - 20 century- marked by a shift away from authoritarian monopolies over public debate and rise of public opinion o “A major factor was the “explosive power” of the press.” (pg. 31)  English Civil War And The Marketplace of Ideas  England’s Parliament broke with monarchy, small printing industry expanded  Royalists and parliamentary forces had newspapers designed to decoy supporters of the other side  The revolution marked end of English Civil War and birth of new period of religious tolerance and press freedom  Revolutionary Press Fights for American Freedom  Governments initially punished even the mildest criticism with imprisonment  Governments continued to suppress printing in American Colonies  Prosecutions for slander against the government continued – truth was not a defense in such cases (sometimes truthful criticism was even seen as worse since it credibly undermined authority)  “I thank God there are no free schools nor printing, and I hope we shall not have these hundred years; for learning has brought disobedience and heresy and sects into the world; and printing has divulge them, and libels against the best government. God keep us from both.” (pg. 32)  William Berkeley – Virginia Governor  This changed when a New York jury overrule the judge and established truth as a defense in libel of government in 1735  Seditious Libel and John Peter Zenger o Seditious Libel = vilifying the government o Cause of liberty – NY editor John Peter Zenger’s Lawyer argued before a British colonial court in NY – Zenger decision was a landmark for freedom of the press in both American and British colonies – lawyer gave an argument to the jury, insisting that truth be a defense against seditious libel and that the cause of freedom everywhere was at stake (pg. 33)  Jury agreed with Zenger’s lawyer – gave a “not guilty” verdict  the judges who had been overruled by the jury were powerless to continue the case because the jury had changed the law  Case was widely accepted as precedent  Franklin’s assessment of Britain’s unwillingness to change tipped scales among colonial printers, press and paved way for revolution  Radical change in principles, opinions, sentiments and affections of the people was real American Revolution  Success of American Revolution and the role played by press meant press freedom would be protected by US constitution in a way unique among nations o “Demonstrate the falsehood of the pretext that freedom of the press is incompatible with orderly government.” (pg. 35)  France: The Call For Freedom And The Descent Into Terror  Before the French Revolution, official censors worked hard to contain the circulation of forbidden books that floated around Paris and the provinces  “The idea that these writers were being oppressed by small-minded censors seemed like “a flock of eagles submitted to the governance of turkeys”.” (pg. 35) 15  French Revolution (like the American Revolution) was lead by a shift in public sentiments expressed in the media  “The new form of the press was a symbol of the Revolution; the change in the medium was part of the revolutionary message.” (pg. 35)  “Without the press, they can conquer the Bastille, but they cannot overthrow the old Regime. To seize power they must seize the word and spread it.” (pg. 36) o The press was such a powerful tool – needed to be used in order to overthrow a government  Cycles of censorship occurred over the next century  it was imposed and then lifted and then imposed again, etc. The Partisan (Opinionated/Editorials) Press Before The Industrial Revolution  News traveled slowly before the Industrial Revolution o System of low postal rates/editor exchanges/widespread competition would change rapidly beginning in the mid-19 century  “steam printing transformed local publishing and the telegraph changed the way national news was distributed.” (pg. 38)  Steamships reduce the amount of time it took for news to travel across the Atlantic th  Newspapers flourished in the 19 century o “Even though publishers there *in Europe+ were handicapped by censorship, higher taxes and higher postal rates.” (pg. 37) – the number of daily/weekly newspapers grew o The U.S. Postal Service was considered a public service – not an agency working for profit  operated with the idea of “unifying a widely disbursed population.” (pg. 37)  Europe held down newspaper circulation while the U.S. grew  Americans depended on newspapers more than other nations  There were no restrictions while setting up a newspaper: no license needed for printers/no stamp duty (like in France and England) o Editors sent their publications to each other through mail  If the newspaper was being sent to another editor in a small town, it was be considered an “exchange” – this was seen as so important in the U.S because the Post Office did not charge for delivery of an exchange Partisan Papers In Great Britain  John Locke drafted a resolution (approved by the parliament) that said that prior restraint on printing it impractical, hurt scholars and the printing trade  To political parties from which emerged dozens of newspapers: 1. Tories: supported monarchy over parliament, supported tradition, resisted social reform…became known as conservatives 2. Whigs: supported parliament over monarchy, supported free trade, religious toleration, voting rights, abolition of slavery…became known as liberals  “These *newspapers+ sold for one halfpenny “to the poorer sort of people, who are purchasing it by reason of its cheapness, to divert themselves and also to allure…young children and entice them into reading.” (pg. 39)  “British authorities were finding the press very difficult to control.” (pg. 39) 16 o They were sold for half a penny until a stamp tax was imposed What Was The Fourth Estate?  Term was a reference to the grower power of the press  Whig party leader Edmund Burke said that there were three “estates” (walks of life) represented in Parliament: 1. The Nobility (House of Lords) 2. The Clergy 3. The Middle Class (House of Commons)  The fourth estate was considered more important than all three  “Somebody…called journalism the Fourth Estate. That was true at the time no doubt. But at the present moment it is the only estate. It has eaten up the other three…We are dominated by journalism.” (pg. 40) Week 3: Newspapers Communication History in Canada McNairn, “The Most Powerful Engine of the Human Mind: The Press and Its Readers” (p. 128-139)  Most Upper Canadians political information came from colonial newspapers  “From the 1820s, their nature, number, distribution and regular reports of parliamentary intelligence reflected their centrality to the public sphere.” (pg. 128)  Exchange of opinion brings new political order among cultural institutions  British coffee house, Upper Canada Club – end of 1830s intellectual conversation  Four positive consequences were to flow from an expanded colonial press: 1. By diffusing knowledge, more newspapers would spark readers’ curiosity and urge men to seek deeper sources of information 2. They would reduce apathy (indifference) by calling attention to topics of common concern o Newspapers helped define those issues – encouraged readers to act 3. Newspapers held up models worthy of emulation and communicate to people all over the world a mutual knowledge of local and general concerns – encourage emulation 4. Flourishing press had important political implications: If free – newspapers would be the source where the public feelings are manifested – by distributing argument and information, newspapers helped create, not just reflect, public opinion Essayist had three goals: sparking curiosity, defining issues of common concern and encouraging emulation  The men living in the city had full access to daily communication (newspapers) which allowed them to feel connected, important (like he had a vote) o Encouraged men to congregate (come together)  There were significant differences between publication and verbal transmission or private correspondence (communication): Verbal Transmission o Oral conversation reached only those in range of the speaker o The identity of the speaker influenced how his or her words were received 17 o Conversation demanded immediate response  could be impulsive response Print/Publication o In print, opinions could be abstracted from the original author and could reach countless others o Authors might be unknown o “*Authors+ could thus exercise influence only by their words, not their identities.” (pg. 130)  Readers were thus encouraged to adopt a more casual, skeptical attitude towards printed text o “Newspapers integrated their readers into a common political community.” (pg. 130)  First newspaper printed in Upper Canada: The Upper Canada Gazette  Expansion and decentralization of newspaper provided local sources of information and a sense of connectedness to the larger community o “Successful expansion was largely driven by demand. Such demand fuelled competition, which in turn further broadened the market. Living at or near a competitive market could be important.” (pg. 131)  Readers were not restricted to the place of publication  Few women subscribed to the newspaper independent of their husbands/fathers  In order to be sustainable, newspapers had to provide what was not otherwise readily available information – that meant non-local material o “In the days before the telegraph transformed them into vehicles for the rapid transmission of ‘news’, newspapers were especially suited to reproducing lengthy documents and commentary.” (pg. 131) o “Geographical diffusion was not just a matter of more communities sustaining a local newspaper. It also involved agents, private carriers, and the post office.” (pg.131) Newspaper Agents: o Many newspaper agents doubled as postmasters because many papers flowed through the mail  Often people complained about the slow delivery process  Subsidized the circulation of Canadian newspapers – shows the importance of connectivity among Canadian citizens o Fulfilled a variety of roles o Some were passive, “merely forwarding subscriptions to the editor. Others were energetic salesmen.” (pg. 132) o Had a task of trying to collect payment from subscribers o “Some forwarded advertisements, reported on local opinion and reaction to the newspaper…or relayed concerns about the ease and regularity of delivery…In return, agents might get a free subscription.” (pg. 132) o “Active agents believed in the newspaper they represented to their neighbours. By helping to construct a network of readers beyond its place of publication, they were vital to its survival.” (pg. 132)  Postal service subsidized the diffusion of newspapers – postal records give little sense of the overall number of readers Three ways the postal system subsidized (supported) the diffusion of newspapers: (1) With a preferential rate 18 (2) Supporting an ‘exchange’ system (3) Tax enforcement  Preferential rate combined with tax enforcement meant that the post office’s other business heavily subsidized the transmission of newspapers  “The newspaper press continued to grow faster than the population, although far less dramatically.” (pg. 134)  “The ability to join this community was partially set by income, although for many geography and family priorities were probably greater determinants.” (pg. 135)  “Newspaper subscriptions still represented a considerable investment or unattainable luxury for many.” (pg. 135)  “Only the most isolated or transient, unskilled wage labourers and others with highly unstable employment…and families in which no one could read were largely absent from the community of newspaper subscribers.” (pg. 135) o “Neither members of these groups nor those who chose not to subscribe were thereby excluded from the community of newspaper readers.” (pg. 135)  Reading aloud and sharing newspapers encouraged critical discussion  The Artisan – first non-religious paper to appeal explicitly to women as a prospect for their newspaper content o Political commentary was usually directed towards male readers; goods and service advertisements were usually advertised towards women as readers and consumers  usually on the same page as the political content  “Urged the illiterate to put newspapers ‘into the hands of your children, direct them to read their contents aloud’.” (pg. 137)  “Despite its impressive reach, the community of newspaper readers was not universal. Access was easier for some groups than others…Editors exaggerated and assumed a community of interest when they spoke of ‘the people’ rather than the public of newspaper readers.” (pg. 137) o Subscribers formed an even smaller group of people Sotiron, “Public Myth and Private Reality” (p. 140-149) New journalism of profit vs. Old journalism of political advocacy  Discusses evolution of newspaper moving away from the importance of content to the liveliness of appearance and advertising (commercialism, profit maximization) th  By the end of the 19 century: o Canada’s English-language press was being commercialized, and began to spread from Montreal and Toronto to other cities o This caused a growing difference of opinion between the public and the publishers. Public:  Believed that the press’ role was to educate and to guard society’s freedoms  Saw press as political advocate and ‘champion’ – held onto the fath that it was a political advocate and was a work toward a better society (19 century view) Publishers:  Believed that the prime purpose of the press was to make money by attracting more readers, which meant more advertisers 19  They made the newspaper more sensational by adding women’s, sports, and entertainment features th  Saw press as enterprises driven by business considerations (20 century view)  The saturation of newspapers by entertainment features lead to dilution of the press’ educative function.  1858: Canadian Publisher’s Association (CPA) was formed, promoting the influence of the press as a factor in the welfare of the State.  1860’s: Saw the concept of the press as a servant of the public interest, under the ‘civic populism’ movement of the late Victorian era. o People assigned the newspaper altruistic roles for the benefit of the public th  Late 19 century: As a result, the idea of the newspapth as a public educator gained great popularity throughout the later part of the 19 century in Canada  This belief stemmed from the partisan nature (strong supporters of certain political th parties) of 19 century Canadian newspapers – a great concern of editors was the ‘responsible government’.  This concept of public educator became intertwined with the idea of the press as public defender.  1880: George Brown: Believed in the newspaper as “public educator and as a power to defend the rights and privileges of the people.” (pg. 140) o Press became ‘Fourth Estate’ (clergy, nobility, commoners…. and press) – had public responsibility, beyond commercial enterprise o Contributed to the idea of the newspaper used for the education of people  1890’s: The vision of the press’ educative function was threatened o Boosting circulation and increasing dependence on advertising = increase in sensationalism, trivial news, and entertainment. o Thus, there was less space for serious commentary, social analysis, and editorial opinion. The paper was now losing its educative purpose.  Some believed that the decline in importance of the editorial indicated that the newspaper was losing its power to do good and its educative purpose “A [newspaper] is more than a business; it is an institution; it reflects and influences the whole community…at the peril of its soul, it must see the supply is not tainted.” (pg. 141)  Regardless of these warnings, J.F. MacKay (Toronto Globe manager) noted in 1903 that:  The ‘press as presently constituted is a commercial venture’ (pg. 141)  ‘Weakening in its social role’ as watchdog of the public interest (pg. 141)  ‘So soon as the newspaper has become entirely commercialized, so soon will the press have fallen from its high estate’ (pg. 141)  Note that in 1902, A. H. U Colquhoun warned that ‘the danger is not imaginary of a newspaper trust which might be organized by persons with large selfish ends to serve in gaining the ear of the public.’ (pg. 140)  1898: Robertsons; ‘newspaper is published to make money, and its educational influence is merely an incident in the business of making money.’ (pg. 142)  1905: Smith; ‘the press is succumbing to the omnipotence of wealth?’  The Toronto Star did a piece on this issue, coming to the conclusion that people felt that the newspapers were now being run like any other commercial enterprise  Newspapers – make $$ for proprietors – depend on advertisers for greater portions of their revenues. 20  “The newspaper’s ‘sole object *was+…making money for the proprietors’, who in turn depended on the advertisers for the greater proportion of their revenues.” (pg. 141)  Star also noted: ‘The day of the editor-proprietor, running a paper solely for the opportunity of expressing his own opinions, was gone!’ (pg. 141)  Fear that the newspapers had come under the influence of monopolistic business concerns was leading to conflicts of interest  “Dramatic transformation of the daily newspaper from a small undertaking, published more for political influence than commercial gain, to a valuable property operated for profit.” (pg. 141)  20 century: FIX FORMAT  The idea of the newspaper as educator began to grow again!  Joseph Favelle bought the Toronto News in 1902, under the premise that he believed in the ‘service’ the newspaper would render to the ‘administration of public affairs’. Its ‘province’ was to educate the public (pg. 142).  Two most prominent Canadian editors of the time were J.W. Dafoe and J.S. Willison  They believed that it was their mission to educate the people and improve society  ‘It is the business of the journalist to develop public opinion, to liberalize and energize the social and industrial forces, the utter voice of the people…’ (pg. 142)  “Good newspapers are the university of the people” (pg. 142)  The press’ view of itself as a kind of public utility persisted after WWI  The Toronto Star’s managing editor, John R. Bone, considered that commercialism posed the greatest danger to freedom of the press, and that advertising was the spearhead of this danger.  Fears of this growth in commercialization were NOT an illusion. Starting in 1890s, publishers and business managers: o Reduced the role of the editorial page o Decreased the amount of political coverage and social commentary o Increased the amount of sensational and trivial material  1917: Manitoba Free Press editor noted that publishers now thought that the editorial position was perhaps a useless one – “a useless luxury”  1880s saw the decline of the editorial page in popular big-city dailies (Star in Montreal, Telegram, News, World in Toronto) was a sign of an industry-wide decline in its importance  By 1898, many papers stopped printing verbatim accounts of parliamentary debates. “The debates of the House…have become a comparatively unimportant news feature.” (pg. 143)  Editorial pages were dropped because it was thought that the public was more interested in unbiased news, rather than the opinion of the editors  Questions were addressing whether the editorial page was even necessary One example of a comparison of a week of editorial pages between those of 1889 ad 1916:  1889: 21 articles on politics and public affairs  1916: 8 articles on politics and public affairs  Readers had become more interested in comics, advice columns, crime stories, and human- interest stories overall (instead of preaching and enlightening columns) 21 Rising Cost of Operation = Decline of editorial page  By 1890s, news was being transformed into a commodity, not a source of information.  This meant that news had to be enticingly written and attractively presented.  This lead to SELF-promotion and sensationalism, which included coverage of local affairs and crime, scandal, natural disasters, and war; self-advertisement of exclusive features, greater use of illustrations, bolder, blacker, multi-column headlines, etc.  Order of telling a news story was reversed – it would start off with most important aspect first (instead of at the end, i.e., conclusion)  No more focus on communicating the significant events  Newspapers were being laid out like a product  Front page was given greater attention as an advertising window  Placement of news became important  Best news was usually local, since it attracted more readers  Advertisements were removed from front page after a while, since editors became aware that front-page news lured customers  The changes in content and layout that made the newspaper the omnibus newspaper (serving as wide a readership as possible) occurred between 1895 and 1905.  Canadians, being behind, took notes from the U.S. – 1890s American publishers were already printing visually exciting newspapers, meaning more profit.  Canadian trade journals regularly reprinted articles from American trade journals.  In addition, Canadian attended American newspaper conventions and belonged to American associations. In turn, more and more American methods were being adopted, both in terms of writing and display tradition. Yellow Journalism  Yellow Journalism: Based upon sensationalism and crude exaggeration, became widespread in Canada due to the money it made.  It is important to note that newspapers, whose financial status was secure, remained detached from sensationalism (Toronto Globe).  However, those that were in desperate circumstances (Montreal Herald) had little choice but to sensationalize the news at the end of the 19 century Hallmarks of Yellow Journalism  Exposed wounds of families for drama  Flaring headlines that were out of proportion with the content that followed  Abrasive caricatures  Newspapers with financial security stayed away from the yellow journalism route o For newspapers facing competition, sensationalism became their method of success – newspapers in desperate circumstances used sensationalism to fight for survival  People became concerned that the newspapers were retreating from their public responsibilities: o This caused citizens to protest the introduction of comic strips (i.e., protestors included educational reformers, women’s groups, and the clergy) London Free Press carried ‘The Yellow Kid’ – was called the ‘corrupter of the young,’ forcing the newspaper to abandon the feature Buster Brown however stayed: was less provocative, and publishers could not deny the importance of comic strips in attracting readers 22  J.H. Cranston made the Toronto Star so popular because he realized that “the average Canadian did not want instruction in the more serious aspects of the news, but entertainment and amusement.” (pg. 146)  Advice was to “Boil It Down” – o “Tell the result of the contest in the first paragraph, then if your report has to be cut for an advertisement, the readers will at least know who played, where, and who won, and the score.”  Average Canadian at this time wanted a newspaper for entertainment th  20 century – adoption of the “objective” approach to the news that we are familiar with today was adopted by the Toronto Star o Shorter more sensational headlines that set forth only the highlights of the story were introduced o “Human interest” stories were published in hopes of attracting as many readers as possible o Success depended on the publisher’s ability to shift the newspaper’s emphasis from political news to entertainment  New journalism = profit; old journalism = political advocacy  Publisher was no longer and educator/ moral instructor  Need for profit became vital and way to achieve it was through adoption of sensationalistic news and introduction of entertainment features Kovarik “The Commercial and Industrial Media Revolution From 1814 to 1900” (p.46-75) Steam-powered Printing Launches a New Media Era  Steam power was introduced at The Times  Steam Power = Mass media Enters Industrial Phase  Steam-powered printing invented by mechanical engineer Freidrich Koenig o Many textile workers were laid off because of the steam engine  Advantage of steam press was speed and less physical labour o Physical Labour: Pressmen would usually have to pull a press lever hour after hour – leaves men with one-sided muscle development o Speed: More efficient  Revolution of handcrafted printing to industrial printing meant: o Lower production costs o More potential for advertising – advertisers could reach more customers o Democratizing politics because there was no more financial dependence on political parties to produce newspapers The ‘Penny’ Press: A News Media Revolution  Primary effect of steam printing: increase newspaper circulation o Newspapers used to be more expensive (5-6 cents so it was limited)  Secondary effects: o Better for economy – created savings on production side of operation o Greater profits – publishers charged higher prices for advertising 23 o Increased Circulation of advertising – Newspapers could afford to drop their prices to a penny per copy because of the rising circulation, which further increased circulation o Gave a voice to the common man, instead of just the elite segment of the community  Content changed: o Went from long political discussions to descriptions of events, crimes, scandals o Went from summary essays about social trends to first-person accounts by reporters o Long descriptions became the “inverted pyramid” that placed key facts in the lad of articles US Penny Press  Four New York prototypes of penny press revolution: (1) The Sun (2) The Herald (3) The Tribune (4) The New York Times (1) The Rise & Fall of the New York Sun  Benjamin Day wanted to print a penny paper and sell it on the streets  Timing in NYC was terrible: epidemic running through the city causing the printing business came to a halt and a financial panic  He came out with The Sun o Purpose: to provide news of the day at a price within the means of everyone (other newspapers focused on politics and business) o Extremely successful o Hired police court reporter and newsboys to sell paper on the streets  Got bad reviews from the elite – said it was trash  Was taken over by Charles Henry Dana who turned it into the first tabloid newspaper  The Sun is best remembered for its editorial “Yes, Virginia. There Is a Santa Claus” (2) Bennett and the New York Herald  Most successful penny newspaper  Bennett knew how to find news – his crime reporting quickly began to eclipse The Sun  To attract readers, he served up a mix of robberies, rapes, and murders almost daily  Founded by James Gordon Bennett o He was widely disliked because he wrote cutting editorial attacks on other editors o Attacked Catholic Church  Insisted that the newspaper be first with news  The first to report the news of: o The defeat of George Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876 o The sinking of the Titanic in 1912 (3) Greeley and the New York Tribune  Horace Greely established the New york Tribune in 1841  Main Idea: publishing a more trustworthy and moral nthspaper  Had a profound influence on American politics in mid 19 century o Promoted social causes such as women’s rights, labour unions and the end of monopolies 24 o Advocated peace before civil war  Greely was fascinated with events in Europe o Hired Karl Marx as a London correspondent  Merged with the Herald (4) The New York Times as the national paper of record  Henry Raymond founded the New York Times in 1851  Started off as a commercial and pragmatic newspaper of record  Catered to elite readers  Raymond had a neutral view of news like Benjamin Franklin so the Times was moderate, but radical at times  The Times became the newspaper of record in the US by the turn of the century  The Time’s investigative work mobilized public opinion against civic corruption and demonstrated the effectiveness of investigative reporting The Penny Press in Britain  Penny Press didn’t begin until 1860s (Stamp Act was lifted between 1855-1861) o Even though steam printing was introduced in 1814, Stamp Act taxes amounted to 5 pence per newspaper – only upper classes could afford the paper  Penny papers offered “purer subjects of thought” than crime or politics- includes poems, sermons, travel stories, and short features of neighborhood o It had a big circulation which shows more about public demand for information than quality of publication itself (1) The Daily Telegraph  The first British penny press newspaper  Established in 1855 by Joseph M. Levy  Featured articles about crime, murder, and curiosities (modeled after New York Times)  Reporter Henry Morton Stanely searched for Dr. Livingstone (a missionary and explorer who had not been heard from for years) o This was one of the best remembered stunt reporting sensations of the age o Articles about crime, murder and curiosities modeled after the New York Herald (2) William Stead and the Pall Mall Gazette  William Thomas Stead: one of the most colourful characters of the emerging ‘penny press’ revolution in Britain o Editor of the Pall Mall Gazette (gentleman’s newspaper) o Started “new journalism”: eye-catching headlines about crime mixed with crusades The Penny Press in France  French press played a pivotal role in the Enlightenment and French Revolution  Newspapers rose and fell as governments rose and fell and as censorship rules were imposed or lifted  French innovation: Serialized novel  Another French innovation: News agency, later known as the wire service o The main idea was the exchanging and translating of news among European nations  The press was the most powerful instrument of government  The Dreyfus Affair: in the daily newspaper in France, Emile Zola reported that Alfred Dreyfus was falsely convicted of treason just because he was Jewish 25 Political and Media Revolutions in Germany  German states had long history of press censorship  In reaction to 1848 revolutions, censorship was dropped but press laws set limits to freedom of expression and put economic pressure on editors and publishers Political Revolutions of 1848:  “March Revolution”, 1848 in Germany advocated for: o Freedom of the press (one of its most important demands) o Freedom of assembly o National Constitution  New press freedom led to different newspapers  Marx: o Best remembered journalist of the 1848 era o Founded an edited a reformist newspaper in Berlin o Argued that the law must reflect social realities and when those realities change, the law must also change o Helped Americans understand Europe in New York Tribune (Horace Greeley)  German newspapers were a bit dry – didn’t cater to popular tastes & mass audiences o Didn’t cover topics of sports or other human interest stories or popular events – mainly political trends The Progressive Era: Crusading, Yellow & Tabloid Journalism Technological Acceleration  The technology of the Industrial Revolution had many effects on society:  Ongoing technological revolution (from Industrial Revolution) made production of daily newspapers possible  made “penny press” possible in U.S and then in other nations – continued to accelerate in the late 19 century th  Turn of 20 century- once solid columns of grey type had been transformed into riot of eye catching headlines, subheads, photos, and illustrations that would remain nearly the same for almost a century  Effects of the Technical Revolution: (1) Created large-scale mass communication enterprises (2) Greater profits for publishers (3) Expanded news coverage and new developments in newspaper and magazine journalism The Press “Barons” of the Progressive Age  Prototypes of modern public affairs were called: o Muckraking o Yellow Journalism o Crusading Journalism o Objective journalism o Literary journalism  Publishers tended to put their personal stamp on extensive news operations o These publishers were sometimes called press barons  What they had in common is that they wanted to: (1) “Promote the public good” (2) Attract readers and build up circulation 26  They were sometimes accused of promoting private interest or personal preferences Crusading Journalism & Joseph Pulitzer’s New York World  Joseph Pulitzer developed his famous crusading journalism style by studying: o Editorials of Horace Greeley o Sensational news style of James Gordon Bennett o Other illustrated newspapers  He appealed to working class readers, especially immigrants to America who needed to understand politics and culture of country in positive life  He was passionate devotee to cause of liberty, liberty of action, of opinion, of government  Used elements in a novel way to increase his newspapers’ appeal to working class  especially immigrants coming to America who needed to understand the politics and culture of the country in a positive light  Devoted to the cause of liberty of action, opinion and government  Pulitzer is often remembered for having a bitter exchange with William Randolph Hearst from the New York Journal about the US government going to war against Spain in 1898 o Their affair was the low point of yellow journalism o Yellow Journalism: named for the yellow ink used to colour a comic character called the “Yellow Kid” that was a humorous take on working class life E. W. Scripps and the first newspaper chain  Edward Wyllis Scripps exemplified free spirited industrial age of the press  Scientific publisher  Founded the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Science Service  He came of age at a time of great opportunity in newspaper publishing – when the voice of the working man was not often reflected in small town newspapers  He printed sensational anti-corruption stories o They stayed profitable even in depression years Yellow Journalism & William Randolph Hearst’s Journal  William Randolph Hearst was a famed “yellow journalism” publisher (1863-1951)  He championed labour unions but fought them when they formed in his own newspapers  Started his career as the young publisher for the Examiner  He approached readers with energy, enterprise, and originality o He used illustrations, sensationalism and personality features to attract readers  He began a competition war with Pulitzer’s World  He had no professional boundaries (unlike Pulitzer) o He was dishonest and would make fake stories/plagerizing competition o Got reporters to leave Pulitzer and join his team  Richard F. Outcault  Some liked his strong liberal democratic outlook, others disliked saying he was the greatest menace to freedom of press because he used media power for propaganda  He used Bennett’s formula of sensationalism, illustrations and personality features to attract readers  He inserted his newspapers into foreign intrigue the way no American publisher had before Richard F. Outcault  he was originally the World’s comic strip artist  His cartoon about working class life was in yellow ink  Since yellow ink was a novelty at the time and used mainly for comics, it came to symbolize the era’s style of tawdry (cheap, flashy, tasteless) journalism 27 Spanish-American War  Hearst’s newspaper was a factor that led to the invasion of Cuba o He was enthusiastic about the war  He was widely despised toward the end of his life (visiting Hitler for one)  The Spanish- American war was not caused by his newspaper coverage but it was a factor Tabloid Journalism & Alfred Harmsworth’s Daily Mail th  Alfred Harmsworth was one of Britain’s most powerful tabloid publishers in the early 20 century o Caught imagination of the reading public  Started the London Daily Mail  People appreciated his harmless but attention-getting tricks he used in Answers o This was a trivia question (Ex: How many people cross the London bridge each day?) and whoever mailed the correct response won one pound a week for life o Had stunts and promotions – offered 1000 pounds for the first airplane that crossed the English channel  There was something warm about the stunts that substituted Pulitzer and Hearst journalism (bare-knuckled and scandalous)  Started the Daily Mirror and saved the London Times o These are still leading newspapers in British publishing today *** Media Transitions: Four Stages of the Press (1) Authoritarian (2) Partisan: helped develop the public sphere of debate and dialogue (3) Commercial (penny press): most beneficial to democracy – it freed the mass media from political party allegiances (4) Organized Intelligence Week 4: Advertising Communication History in Canada Johnston, “Newspapers, Advertising and the Rise of the Agency, 1850-1900” (p. 150 – 161)  “You run your newspapers to make money. You are not running newspapers to mould public opinion.” (pg. 150)  James Poole: typical mid-nineteenth century Canadian Publisher o 1860: Poole owned and operated the Carleton place Herald, a four page weekly paper upholding the liberal cause o Carried his reports of local people and events, stories from around the world  He was typical because in the early 1860s, there were 150 weekly papers in villages across the province o Thousands of Canadians migrated to the industrializing urban centers, number of jobs increased, and increased in goods/markets meant an increase for advertising (1895- 1905) 28  Newspapering was more than a career – it was a way of life  Rural journalism was the cousin of urban press  Canada became favored destination by immigrants in 1880 o With these immigrants came manufacturers providing consumer goods o With these consumer goods came an increase in the volume of advertising  Two groups encourage growth in advertising—publishers and advertising agents: o Publishers left behind age of personal journalism o Much of new revenue came through the increase in advertising  Secondary source of income became the primary source o This growth developed a new kind of businessman = advertising agent  1901: Total value of capital invested in Canadian manufacturing rose more than 5 times o “The number of jobs increased with the pace of investment.” (pg. 151)  “With the increase in goods and markets came a perceived increase in the volume of advertising.” (pg. 151)  Distribution networks extended outwards and so did advertising  Establishment of new papers used to gauge (measure) investor confidence in local trade conditions  Advertising revenue overtook subscriptions as primary source of income in almost every Canadian paper by WW1  Retailers were the traditional source of local advertising at this time o Manufacturers – core group of foreign advertisers- were not mentioned  “A newspaper was not a standardized product, but an expression of the editor himself and a reflection of the community he served. Newspapers were far too intimate and local to contemplate corporate consolidation.” (pg. 152)  More subscriptions + advertising = more pages that could be run  Large towns that could support job – printing plants were able to get their advertisements made to order in plate form  Lack of standardization among papers increased the cost of plate–making dramatically  Rate paid by advertisers for ad space in paper was up for negotiation o Generally had four rates:  Local business  Foreign business  Government notices  Family/friends Opportunities for the agents  1865: changes altered the trade in US  George Powell established an agency in Boston that had a new rate structure o More agencies entering the field, getting competitive- profit shrank o Other agents secured clients first, then placed their ads o Contracted large amounts of space in 100 New England papers and sold the complete list to advertisers o Became a wholesaler of publishers’ white space = “space jobber”  Possessed the lowest rates available for those papers and used this method to attract advertisers to buy the space from him  Profits made from the resale value of the white space that the agents controlled  American advertisers questioned the closed contracts of space jobbers  1875: AJ Ayer exploited resentments with introduction of open contracts o Introduced concept of advertiser- oriented service 29 o Each advertiser would be offered a selection of media sensitive to its produce and distribution network  Space j
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