MIT 2000- Final Exam Notes.docx

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Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
Media, Information and Technoculture 2000F/G

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Armatage, “Girl From God‟s Country,” 266-271 - Nell Shipman was a independent driven actress – 1912 she already began writing and acting – specialize in wilderness and adventure films and began to be known as “the girl from gods country - Nell Shipman productions – lived in the Idaho wilderness – featured animals as main characters (villans, romantics, hero) – did all her own stunts wrangling animals – “Back to Gods Country” - New York film companies she would sell her films to - Serial Queens : active female with dominance, autonomy, independence out of the domestic sphere. Kovarik, “The Visual Revolution”, 138-162 - Cinema is more powerful then any other media – ex. Locomotion ducking - 1980‟s silent film had little camera movement – New York - Thomas Edison made the Motion Pictures Patents Company “Edision Trust” comtrolled many patents and therefore tried to control other film companies (Fox, Paramount, etc) – they then moved to the West coast to escape this control - MPAA Code – 1922 Edited by Hayes – fought federal proposals to censor films – under the code criminals could never win, no nudity, sex, or homosexuality – was later disarmed a few decades later - Silent Film – “A Birth of a Nation (during WW1) and Charlie Chaplin – many talented European filmmakers fled because of Nazi‟s and went to Hollywood bringing their creativity to end the silent film era o 1920‟s Warner built a sound studio – “The Jazz Singer” became a major hit o combination of sound and film changed movies completely o “Talkies” – hundreds of actors were canned - 1930‟s Golden Age – factory that produced movies weekly and employed the same actors – “Wizard of Oz” o Animation – Walt Disney was a leader o Propaganda films – “Birth of Nations” – capture vulnerable audiences – Nazi films to convince audiences the Jews were evil - Post War o HUAC – House Un-American Activities Committee investigated concerns that Hollywood was a communist regime - African Americans slowly became accepted within film – HW helped ease the way for US human rights - Decline in mass audience o 1960‟s television programs effected this – almost every family had a TV at home – entertainment became individual or family based instead of community o HW began to produce DVD‟s to make up for these loses Magder, “Featureless Film Policy”, 234-243 - Canadians cultural policy has changed because of feature film industry o Highly capitalized sector of culture production o Clearest example of foreign domination bc of production/consumption o Major policy of Canadianization - History of feature film industry in Canada 1. Consoldation of a production, sitribution and exhibition network that established the predominantce of American films and capital in the Canadian market 2. General complicity os the state in this process through acceptance of the private dynamics of feature films 3. Establishment of tradition of state sponsored film organizations rodcing non- commercial, non fiction, educational films consistent with the states perception of the limied role popular culture should play in cultural identity - Canadians sparse population and great distances between urban centres slowed the process of the film industry – links between American exhibitors bagan - Canadian Government Motion Pictures Bureau in 1918 produced non commercial educational films that had little impact of the private sector films o Was replaced by the NFB Natonal Film Board of Canada in 1939: to initate and promote films in the national interest to interpret Canada to Canadians and other nations – created an improper basis for social and national identity - Hollywood began to produce Canadian NFB filsm - Massey Levesque articulated the need to establish some form of nation communications infrastructure that would promotes Canadian interests o High culture: valued by educational content – shaped by films influence o Low culture: entertainment and intstrument of emerging mass society - Filmmakers of CBC and NFB in Canada were frustrated by Levesque and began to pressure the state to help them in the formation of the popular culture – state support was needed in order to created a distinct Candian culture - In 1975 state clarifies that its objectives would be to promote a commercially viable, profit making industry geared to internatonal market sthrough distribution by US majors - Shows the hegemonic power of public policy Druick, “NFB and Government,” 259-265 - National Film Board of Canada: state sponsored film making instituon specializing in short non theatrical documentary films o NFB represents survivor of the capital-intensive systems of HW o They have been social reformers aiming to use film as communications technology for consolidating middle ground opinion in Canada about Canada - Est in 1939 months before WW2 o Employed hundres of people and making hundres of films by the end of the war o Remake itself as an educational film provider in the 1950‟s and a site of technological and stylistic innovation - NFB provides a good example of visual media in general and documentary film – even in politics o Shows excellent site for reading narratives of ideal citizenship, government, etc. o Government documentary film is a technology of social science which in turn is the technology of liberal democrary - Governmentality as the range of practices organized around conducting the conduct of self in society – social life becomes a field of government intervention o Measuring or documenting the population may actually help produce it : social categorizing - NFB adopted non theatrical distribution from empire communication theory and its narrarives of typically and risk from American social science – narrarive strategy used in many films parallels that of statistical production itself – including through the difference between fact or fiction - Close role between social policy and documentariesis apparent in the controlling voice of NFB film o Mental and social hygiene, labour management cooperation, national security, education were all common themes o Characterize government realism – “styleless style” o Two forms of documentaries  Dramatic reenactment or observational style – fake interviews, voice overs, cuts,  Performaing documentaries: focus on filmmakers subjectivities response to social and historical events - NFB show films about everyday lives of Canadians a are often fake although they partake in the realist aesthetic they are not part of a radical political program ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Korinek, “Mrs. Chatelaine”, 177-89 - 1960‟s Chateliene magazine contest – women had to send in a photo of themselves and provide their husbands occupations and write essays about their cleaning and housekeeping o shows how culture communities are formed – around gender, age, class o created a contest middle class, heterosexual, conservative women - contest stirred up issue of how people perceived the role of women o Chateliene continued to produce feminist artciles o Contest happened when women were entering the workforce after WW2 (35%) - Chateliene attracted average Canadians with fair amount of living/spending money - Its was the only Canadian women magazing, therefore influencing women that it was the only way women should be - Mrs Slob- a contest against Chatelaines – shows readers attempts for a more diverse reading realm Kovarik, “The Visual Revolution”, 163-190 - rise of the care for images as the centre of political and cultural influence - power of images to promote products – ex. Photos of products that dominated advertising - brand images - PT Barnum understood the publics taste for hokum and ballyhoo – owned a museum with fake stuff - Advertising Agencies o 1450‟s – 1830‟s advertising was for private published to sell o invention of public press – penny press – made publishers realize the amount of money that could be made in advertsing o Four models of advertising agencies i. Newspaper agency (taking orders for ads) ii.Space jobbing (selling space to clients and then butng yhe ad space iii.Space wholesaling (buying large regular rates iv. Advertising concession (contracting for advertising space and taking the risk of selling the space) o First ad agency is London 1812 o 1870s ad agencies came into full swing – trademarks, package designs, marketing plans - PR vs. Marketing o What is a corporate dominance vs what the public should know about - WW2- PR and ad were supportive to war efforts – War Advertising Council encouraged corporations to produce ads about war that supported American war efforts - Radio programs o Were supported by Corps. Ex. Gary Afternoon Show Supported by Campbell‟s Soup - Malboro Man – most signifigant icon of the advertising age- cowboy riding a horse smoking cigs – sales went up 300 % - Public relations for corporations was nothing more then defensive tactic used when under fire from public – others accepted publics opinions and in turn, made them more successful - Major orportate ad mergers began to take place - Tv and radio ad were prominent in 1950-2010 and newspaper ad dropped o Internet search engines bundle content – aimed ay individuals not at mass markets o Google Is the leader – audience interaction (Marshal McLuhan 189) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Hogarth “Public-Service Bro
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