MIT 2000 Practise Questions

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Western University
Media, Information and Technoculture
Media, Information and Technoculture 2000F/G
David Spencer

1How did the invention of the printing press affect capitalismThe printing press was invented by the German Johannes Gutenberg in the Holy Roman Empire around 1440 Gutenberg worked on perfecting the technical problem of mass producing books because wood blocks did not hold up well to thousands of impressions his insight was the individual pieces of moveable type could be made which evenly printed ink onto a print medium The printing press provided cheap quick accurate communications across the once difficult boundaries of space and time The printing press allowed for old ideas to be contrasted and new ideas developed The Church used to have ultimate monopoly over information and enforced it ruthlessly after the printing press they lost that power It created a new instrument for the master of public opinion upon the masses When printing first started the bourgeois had access to it while the working class could not afford it People could only subscribe to this community if they had a high income generally if they were elite bourgeois working class people Also the printing press related to capitalism because it created a whole new job market The printing economy regrouped people with older and newer skills Older skills that included paper making ink manufacturer leather working book binding and book marketing Newer skills included presswork type setting foundry type casting Printing became industrialized in a capitalist manner because they were producing mass amounts of books in the most efficient manner 2What was the original function of newspapers and how did this function change with intro of advertisingNewspapers were originally served to educate and serve the public interest They discussed politics had editorials and important events in societyThe presss role started to change once they wanted to make money by attracting more readers and thus more advertisers Instead of educating and guarding societys freedom the presss role was to make money by attracting more readers and thus more advertisers Newspapers came under the influence of monopolistic business concerns and in 1890 newspapers transformed from a source of information into a commodity Newspapers were only concerned about capitalistic concerns instead of serving the public Yellow journalism was introduced created by William Randolph Hearst who named the yellow ink used to color a comic character called Yellow kid they are usually humorous takes on the working life attacking monopolies and hyping stories with headlines exaggerated stories There was a myth that newspapers were there for public opinion when really they were there for profit
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