28 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Media, Information and Technoculture
Media, Information and Technoculture 2100F/G
Jonathan Burston

Vincent Moscow & Robert McChesney (listen to clip on WebCT) History ▪ Capitalism- “a system of wage-labour and commodity production for sale, exchange, and profit, rather the immediate need of the producers” ▪ Enlightenment – importance of reason, movement away from the church and towards study that wasn’t associated with religion, the importance of facts and things that could be proved through empirical research, a new interest in democratic ideals, the rise of individualism, use of science to explain phenomenon ▪ The rise of individualism really helped the growth of capitalism ▪ Marx could never have imagined the division of labour that we have today ▪ Marx – capitalists own the means of production, small amount of people at the top of the pyramid ▪ Alienation of labour: under capitalism, workers never become autonomous, self-realized human beings in any significant sense, except the way the bourgeois want the worker to be realized... the worker is an instrument for a capital production system and so is alienated from his labour ▪ Industrialization and urbanization – through the 19th and 20th centuries capitalism, industrialization, and urbanization continued to expand at a rapid rate, supported by the democratic, progressive, individualistic, scientific, rational ideals of the Enlightenment ▪ 40s and 50s, huge economic growth in North America, post WWII ▪ Thatcher and Reagan allowed the market to control, deregulation, in the 80s through laissez-faire ▪ History that had an impact on the field of communication – enlightenment, urbanization, capitalism/industrialism, advertising, war effort/propaganda, business/PR ▪ Rise of social science to figure out how society worked ▪ McLuhan – the media is a larger communities source of information AdministrativeResearch ▪ “carried through the service of some kind of administrative agency of public or private character” ▪ Researching how to use media more effectively to promote ideals of governments and business ▪ More quantitative evidence of the impact of media – statistics ▪ Quantitative and objective proof of what media is doing to society ▪ Made rise post WWII CriticalResearch ▪ Began with the Frankfurt school – mass media has a direct and powerful effect on the audiences (40s and 50s) ▪ Took issue with “cultural industry” – coined the term ▪ Capitalists not only owned the means of production but also controlled the production of society’s dominant ideas and values ▪ Hypodermic needle model of media effects – the intended message is directly received and wholly accepted by the receiver, the direct, strategic and planned infusion of a message into an individual - it has become apparent now that the media has selective influences on people, we don’t accept everything that we read/see/hear ▪ Shift towards critical research in the 60s and even more so in the 80s (with more deregulation from the Reagan admin.) ▪ Capitalists controlled the production of society’s dominant ideas and values ▪ 1) interested in the relationship of communication, culture and power ▪ 2) “praxis orientated” – doing something that is tangible, they want to do something about it, making the world a better place ▪ 3) interested in history in order to understand contemporary phenomenon ▪ 4) tend to be qualitative, tends to be more theory oriented ▪ 5) sceptical view of mainstream media, general concerns about it ▪ The dominant form was administrative research, then the Frankfurt school came along – although they may have been dramatic in their theories, they developed a new school of thought about the media and it’s workings CRITICAL RESEARCH IN THE 1980S ▪ Strong interest in Marxism and the Frankfurt School ▪ Due to Right-wing political thinking ▪ Rise of cultural studies ▪ Media ownership in fewer and fewer hands, major news organizations are all based in the west Main ThemesofPoliticalEconomyOf Media 1) Macroscopic ▪ Looks at structures of control, the larger media system, how it works, how it is controlled, what it means for society 2) Media promote hegemonic power ▪ Antonio Gramsci – “the hegemonic power of the dominant group in society is the predicated on the consent of the governed” – conceptualized “cultural hegemony” as a means of capturing control over the commanding heights of culture and the state of a capitalist society (he was an Italian communist) ▪ Hegemony is a process, a subtle type of power, about trying to make you believe that something is just natural, “that’s the way it is”, “I couldn’t imagine it any other way” ▪ Through the willing and active consent of those being controlled ▪ Agenda setting* - the theory that the mass-news media have a large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them. Agenda-setting theory’s main postulate is salience transfer. Salience transfer is the ability of the mass media to transfer issues of importance from their mass media agendas to public agendas ▪ Hegemonic power is never absolute, it is a process, whenever you have hegemonic power there is always some type of counter-hegemonic power ‘ ▪ What is left out of the news? Argue that the media engage in agenda setting, by selecting topics to focus on, not only what to think, but also what to think about ▪ Hegemony – construction of the consent from the powerless through cultural values 3) Tends to be qualitative 4) Praxis-oriented – doing something to make the world a better place 5) Media do have power... how much power? ▪ Spectrum of scholars ▪ Seeing “us” as consumers or citizens 6) Don’t want to dismantle the media... – but government must take a role and support the public media system 7) Power (of who controls and owns what media outlets) is becoming increasingly invisible 8) Erosion of the public space (Herbert Schiller) ▪ Need to balance public and private, government needs to help regulated media, make power more visible make it known how owns things 9) Citizens are treated only as consumers ▪ The audience is the commodity ▪ Dallas Smythe – “power of the mass media to restrict independent thinking, channel public opinion and assemble viewing and listening audiences for advertisers, and its implications for free speech, democracy, and human rights” ▪ Broadcasters are in the business of producing audiences, these audiences are sold to advertisers, the audience is the commodity for sale JURGEN HABERMAS –PUBLIC SPHERE MODEL ▪ Public sphere model suggests that society’s needs cannot be met entirely through the market system ▪ Because the market is based on consumer purchasing power, it behaves quite differently from the democratic ideal of “one person, one vote” ▪ Some societal needs cannot be met through the market’s supply and demand dynamic ▪ Diversity and substance are used in the public sphere model to assess the performance of media – government plays a useful and necessary role in ensuring that the media meet the needs of citizens, not just consumers ▪ The media are our primary information sources and storytellers, the media have become the core of a crucial democratic site that social theorists refer to as the public sphere ▪ Jurgen Habermas – The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere describes the importance of a vibrant public sphere for democratic societies ▪ Based around 18th century coffee houses ▪ The rise of capitalist control helped push the decline of the public sphere ▪ “the media’s function changed as they increasingly became arms of capitalist interest, shifting towards a role of public opinion former and away from that of information provider ▪ He believes in humankinds ability to reason, that we will come to rational confusions about public opinion ▪ Citizens need objective information to participate in these debates, rise of the newspapers and literacy in the 18th century England ▪ More about consumers and money than about the citizens ▪ With rise of spin/PR in the 20th century, how are the media supposed to be an information provider when media is controlled by different sources ▪ The media has now become a PROXY (a stand-in, a substitute) for rational, critical debate, most of society has come to accept that the media tells us what information we need to know ▪ We rely on the media to be a critical thinker for us, we allow the media to debate instead of doing it our self – this becomes a problem when private media have economic pressures ▪ The principal way that mass media can contribute to democratic processes is by helping to cultivate social spaces for ongoing public dialogue. ▪ Model views people as citizens, rather than consumers, media should serve these citizens, rather than target potential consumers ▪ The potential contribution of media to such a democracy is in the work of creating and sustaining a citizenry that is prepared for participation in public life ▪ Losing the opportunity for a public sphere, public spaces becoming private ▪ Is the internet a new public sphere? Separate from corporate, religious control, but who is excluded from the internet, not everybody has the privilege to access it CRITICISM OF HABERMAS ▪ The public sphere he idealizes in the coffee shop has power relations within it (all white, educated men) ▪ Coffee shop an elitist place ▪ Democracy about debate, consensus shouldn’t be made always MEDIA CONGLOMERATION ▪ Owns many companies in various mass media (TV, film, publishing, internet) ▪ Horizontal integration (98) – buys other types of media companies ex blockbuster movie ▪ Vertical integration – controlling the production and/or distribution of media, owns many means of production, distribution ▪ The audience is the commodity ▪ More money and power – synergy (pg 78), the dynamic in which components of a company come together to produce benefits that would be impossible for a single, separately owned company ▪ Cross promotion – promoting a single concept via various media ▪ Cross production/development – developing and packaging a single concept for various media PEOM CONERNS WITH CONGLOMERATIONS ▪ Decrease of diverse opinions and voices ▪ Journalistic freedom is depleted: “as the conglomerates that won newspapers and TV channels dramatically expand their holdings, the zones where journalists are expected to tread cautiously are also stretching, it becomes awkward to cover not only ones parent company, but all of their holdings” (Klein) ▪ Decrease voice of minorities and other marginalized citizens, fewer opportunities for marginalized groups to reach the public MICKEY MOUSE MONOPOLY ▪ People were outraged when Disney was being questioned ▪ Disney is an example of vertical and horizontal integration ▪ Disney has a huge influence on international culture ▪ Maintains a romance about it; a fantasy that never needs to be questioned, images of innocence ▪ Media impose a cultural reality about stereotypes, most of our leisure time is spent analyzing and enjoying media ▪ Gender and race constructed from a stereotypical view, doesn’t matter if intentional or not, the effect is still there ▪ Have rewritten historical events inaccurately in stories DEREGULATION ▪ The act/process of removing restrictions and regulations, the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals with intent of encouraging the efficient operations of markets (foreign ownership reservations, regulation of content in media of the public interest) ▪ Deregulation doesn’t mean no regulation ▪ The government isn’t regulating on behalf of the citizens, the market is regulating itself LIBERALIZATION ▪ Elimination of protectionist trade measures in the move towards a free market capitalist economic system ▪ Subsidization, CanCon, tariffs PRIVATIZATION ▪ The transfer of responsibility for, or administration of, a government function from a government entity to a private entity ▪ Deregulation + liberalization + privatization = neoliberalism ▪ Free market, free trade and unrestricted flow of capital ▪ Lower government spending, taxation, regulations and direct involvement in the economy ▪ Contrast to neo-liberalism – protectionism, fair trade, non-capitalist societies CROTEAU AND HOYNES ▪ The only business specifically protected in the US Constitution is the “free press” ▪ Nearly all major media companies are commercial corporations, whose primary function is creating profits for owners or stockholders ▪ The multibillion-dollar media industry has been changing very rapidly as media conglomerates grow in size and scope, expanding their reach across the globe. As a result, media are fully integrated into commanding more public attention than any other single institution. ▪ Raise questions about ownership and control of information, about concentration of power, the responsiveness of media to an increasingly diverse society, about the future of journalism, and about the relationship between media and citizens. ▪ NBC Universal represents one example of the newest breed of media conglomerate. Bigger, diversified, integrated, global, and powerful, the emerging media giants are the embodiment of broader industry trends. ▪ Rather than serving as a propaganda machine for those in power, media are expected to reflect the range of creative visions and ideas that constitute a society’s vibrant culture. ▪ The media have the special task of providing independent information to citizens – informing citizens of current events and debates and alerting us to potential abuses of power, a free press is a means by when the public interest is served ▪ The news has become an entertainment spectacle ▪ Media are supposed to be a watchdog of government, but who serves as a watchdog of corporate media? This is one of the major dilemmas facing our current media system. ▪ Entertainment is generally far more profitable than information – the tension between profits and the public interest MARKET MODEL ▪ Markets promote efficiency – because they are trying to increase profits, companies must develop new ways to deliver goods and services ▪ Markets promote responsiveness – operate on principle of supply and demand, respond to what the market wants, responding to basic economic market models of supply and demand dynamics ▪ Markets promote flexibility – the absence of centralized planning and control allows them to quickly adapt to the new supply-demand balance, respond quickly to new market conditions, flexibility response is necessary only if competitors exist to lure customers away from unresponsive producers ▪ Markets promote innovation – the incentive of big profits promotes innovation as companies try to develop new products that will capture a larger market share or secure an untapped market segment, lack of competition tends to discourage innovation ▪ Markets can deliver media like any other product – if the media industry if left unregulated it will respond to consumer demand, develop innovative new products, and remain flexible and efficient PUBLIC SPHERE MODEL – LIMITS OF MARKETS ▪ Markets are undemocratic – “one dollar, one vote”, inconsistent with democratic assumption, profits are the measure of success, the more money you have, the more influence you have in the marketplace, contrary to the democratic ideal that individuals have inherent and equal worth that justifies their basic rights ▪ Markets reproduce inequality – rather than being in an even playing field where individuals compete, players enter the market with widely unequal resources, parties with significant resources may own or disproportionately influence media content, media may tend to reflect the views and interests of those with wealth and power and neglect the views and interests of others ▪ Markets are amoral – markets make no judgement about what is bought and sold, they do not distinguish between products that might be good for society versus products that might be harmful, the market is designed to supply whatever there is a demand for ▪ Markets do not necessarily meet social needs – there are a whole host of services that societies deem important to provide their citizens, regardless of the market forces, society depends on an extensive infrastructure of non-profit, nonmarket institutions to meet social needs and to aid and support those whose needs cannot be met in the marketplace, the rationale for public media is the same as with public education of health care; it is an invaluable resource that should be available to citizens regardless of their ability to pay, and the market does an inadequate job of meeting this need ▪ Markets do not necessarily meet democratic needs – relatively competitive media industries can, and often do, provide products that ill serve a democratic citizenry, because of their inexpensive production costs and relative popularity among consumers, market forces might lead to an ever-growing stream of light entertainment ▪ The central role of advertising in some forms of media creates unique market relationships that must be taken into account when assessing the media ▪ Media cannot be considered as merely a product to be used by consumers, instead media are resources for citizens with important informational, educational and integrative functions ▪ The unique role that media play in democracy is reflected in the legal protections the media enjoy in the US ▪ If money and profits are the only scorecards by which we measure the media industry, the market model approach that we outlined in chapter one, then the public interest concerns at the heart of the public sphere approach are left out in the cold ▪ Part of the Reagan administration’s agenda was to deregulate businesses, and the media were no exception, newly relaxed ownership rules and a sympathetic political environment resulted in all three TV networks changing hands with little concern from regulators ▪ Another important sign of the growth of the media industry is the remarkable expansion in the range of the places where we consume media – most dramatic growth has been the size of the entertainment industry ▪ It would be a mistake to assume that profit pressures are a new or recent development, such pressures have shaped mass media at least since the development of a popular commercial press in the 19th century ▪ The newspaper industry has long been shaped by business dynamics that stress audience size and advertiser satisfaction, we would have to go back to the partisan press of the early 19th century to find news that was not shaped by such business concerns ▪ The result of commercialization was that news needed to entertain viewers, by aiming programming at the lowest common denominator ▪ The new commercial press sought to sell papers to a broad public and turn that large circulation into revenue by selling space in the newspaper to advertisers wanting to reach a mass audience- to reach a mass audience, newspapers broadened the types of stories they covered and began to move away from a strict focus on politics to include regular coverage of such areas as sports, entertainment, and fashion. ▪ For William Hearst, media ownership was an avenue into politics, even when he did not hold office, he wielded influence through his crusading and sensational newspapers, Heart’s complex role as journalist, businessman, and politician shows both the business dynamics that push news toward entertainment and the political questions raised by the growth of media conglomerates ▪ 1920s – if radio was such a powerful medium, shouldn’t it be used for something other than programming to a mass audience and selling commercial products? ▪ The meet profit expectations, network executives tried to schedule programs that would attract large audiences, they selected shows that were “safe” – that would not offend any significant portion of the potential audience ▪ With advertisers providing virtually all of the revenue for the networks, television fast became more of an entertainment and marketing medium than a public service medium ▪ Radio survived the shift towards television by focusing on the youth market and, with the help of technological developments, becoming a local instead of a national medium ▪ The launching of USA Today in 1982 – a paper with bite-sized news stories and plenty of colour photos and graphics sold in a vending box that resembled a television set – was indicative of the ways in which news- papers began to imitate the style and format of television ▪ The magazine industry helped to promote the television and movie industries and, simultaneously, attract readers because of their interest in television and movies. ▪ 1980s – the mass audience was fragmenting and more media were focusing on specific target audiences, the spread of cable television and a heightened emphasis by advertisers on the importance of demographics only enhanced this process of specialized media content and segmented media markets, in addition, with the audience continuing to fragment, the emphasis on the big hit – blockbusters, bestsellers, platinum records – only increased. ▪ Media policy, largely implemented by federal regulators, is a key factor that shapes the business strategies within the media industry ▪ The media industry relies on a complex set of laws and regulations that help to define both the playing field and the rules of the game – rather than whether the government should intervene, the real issue is how the government should intervene ▪ Sherman Act (originally for oil companies), is intended to protect the public from the power and control of the major owners in highly concentrated industries, makes monopoly ownership unlawful (early 20th century) ▪ 1940s break-up of the motion picture industry – long lasting impact on the media business, leading to long-standing concern among regulators, and policy makers about vertical integration within the media industry ▪ Policy makers based the rationale for media policy on the need for competition and diversity within the media industry, these terms are often the subject of intense debate, highly concentrated industries, such as television and motion pictures, competition for the mass audience has historical lead to imitation instead of innovation ▪ The market model equates cultural worth with economic success, that which is profitable is valuable, and cultural goals that are not profitable are ultimately not worth achieving. ▪ From a market perspective, industry mergers can be understood as the rational actions of media corporations attempting to maximize sale, create efficiencies in production, and position themselves strategically to face potential competitors ▪ Growth – mergers and buyouts have made media corporations bigger than ever ▪ Integration – new media giants have integrated either horizontally or vertically ▪ Globalization – to varying degrees, the major media conglomerates have become global entities, marketing their wares worldwide ▪ Concentration of ownership – as major players acquire more media holdings, the ownership of mainstream media has become increasingly concentrated ▪ Branding – packaging a single idea across all various media allows corporations to generate multiple revenue streams from a single concept – corporations must expand to an unprecedented size ▪ 1999 – technology + politics = deregulation, with a conservative shift in national politics that led to major deregulation of media industry again, allowing media corporations to expand rapidly ▪ More content doesn’t necessarily mean different content ▪ The relaxation of key regulations was absolutely essential for the rapid expansion of media conglomerates, networks pressured independent producers to give up ownership rights and they increasingly relied on programming produced by their corporate parent ▪ 1996 Telecommunications Act HORIZONTAL INTEGRATION - owns many different types of media products - owning properties across media allows one type of media to promote and work with another type of media (ex. CBS Sports with CBSSportsLine.com) - Viacom’s ownership of the Star Trek franchise has allowed it to develop and produce a variety of products across media, including a television series, films, books, video games, theme park – exploiting its synergy - convergence has eroded the walls between what used to be three distinct industries – media, telecommunications, and computers - involving companies outside of the traditional media industry, making it more difficult than ever to mark clear boundaries VERTICAL INTEGRATION - owning assets involved in the production, distribution, exhibition and sale of a single type of media product - Viacom owns film production and distribution, but also theatre chains to show the films, then shows the movie on cable channel after rental life is over GLOBALIZATION ▪ Domestic markets are saturated with media products, so many companies see international markets as the key to future growth, want to be well positioned to tap into developing markets ▪ Media giants are in the position to effectively compete, and dominate foreign markets ▪ By distributing existing media products to foreign markets, media companies are able to tap a lucrative source of revenue with virtually no additional cost ▪ “ a regulatory system created n a far different era is obsolete in this new dynamic media environment” ▪ “it is tough to show that rivalry could suffer where none exists, as with a merger between companies that have never compete against each other” ▪ Market theory promised diversity from an unregulated market, but the reality seems to be quite different, as the same old media content is being sold in new packaging, and under-served communities continue to be marginalized ▪ The example of Titanic branding ▪ One successful project can be enormously profitable, thus reinforcing the conglomerate’s role as a dominant media corporation ▪ The bigger the sales, the less per unit production and manufacturing costs because those costs are spread over many more units, this translates into more profit for the media company, for media conglomerates it is more efficient to develop and support major hits with sales in the millions than it is to produce many products with much smaller sales, products that reach niche audiences are not as profitable ▪ Branding – brands attractive to customers overwhelmed with so many choices in the consumer market ▪ Branding includes; distinguishing a product from others via real attributes or image creation, maintaining high profile marketing campaigns highlighting the brand name, repeating the brand image and message across different media ▪ Creating a new, nationally recognized brand costs from 20 to 40 million in television advertising in the first 4 months ▪ Newspaper publishers often develop different versions of the paper aimed at people living in different areas ▪ By buying suppliers and competitors, media giants help to reduce the uncertainty that can arise from competition ▪ Competition spurs innovation and keeps prices down, because consumers have choices and can take their business to a competitor if they find that one company is charging too much, not providing the products and services they want, or not keeping up with the innovations in the field PUBLIC SPHERE ▪ Diversity – media should reflect the range of views and experiences present in a diverse society ▪ Innovation – the impressive technological capacities and capital resources of the media industry should be coupled with creativity and innovation in form and content ▪ Innovation – impressive technological capacities and capital resources of the media industry should be coupled with creativity and innovation in form and content ▪ Substance – a healthy democratic society must have media that include substantive news and entertainment addressing significant issues facing society, presented in an engaging manner that promotes civic participation ▪ Independence – media should provide citizens with information and views independent of such concentrated power, either governmental or corporate ▪ The structural constraints created by the primacy of business concerns have frequently prevented employees from meeting their full potential ▪ Instead of media that are diverse, innovative, substantive, and independent, the recent structural and strategic changes in the media industry have too often led to content that is homogenized, imitative, trivial, and constrained ▪ The core principle underlying a public interest approach to media is the radical notion of democracy, because it values widespread, equal, and diverse participation over centralized power and anointed spokespeople ▪ Homogenization can be the unintentional outcome of companies minimizing risk and maximizing profits, as media giants pursue their synergistic strategies and try to reduce risk, they face limited competition from other media giants ▪ Homogenization is often the by product of imitating previous successes to minimize risk with new products and to take advantage of known and profitable trends. ▪ Decline of localism – shifted to corporate headquarters of media conglomerates ▪ “sex, violence, spectacle” – relatively cheap to produce and draw a regular audience ▪ Although carried on within the framework of profit-generating networks, broadcast news was for decades widely considered to be the network’s public service contribution, news divisions had to stay within their budgets, but they were not expected to generate significant profits for the corporate owners, instead as “loss leaders”, respectable news divisions added prestige to the national networks.. until the 1980s with the commercial success of CBS’s 60 Minutes ▪ It is the business managers, not the journalists that wield power in today’s newsrooms ▪ The pursuit of profits through synergistic strategies seems to be edging out the substantive ideas and discussion that would be more valuable to the health of the public sphere ▪ Constraints on the media in democratic societies come from corporations for economic purposes, rather than governments for political purposes ▪ Commercial news organizations would like to produce credible news coverage at the lowest possible cost, this leads to practices in which journalists rely on outside sources to feed them stories, news material from government and the private sector efficiently helps news organizations fill their broadcasts and newspapers ▪ News organizations are less likely to pursue costly investigations ▪ More and more collaborative news efforts where “competing” media conglomerates pool their newsgathering resources to produce even lower cost news ▪ In a development known as “transaction journalism”, information that is presented in a journalistic form is directly connected to the promotion of a commercial product ▪ The views that dominant in corporate media tend to be those that are compatible with the corporate worldview ▪ Little or nothing needs to be said about what is or is not acceptable in reporting, it is the cumulative effect of small daily decisions that result in homogenized, corporate-friendly media. ▪ Major media conglomerates lobbied for the passing of the 1996 Telecommunications act ▪ When key individuals in media companies have vested interests in the outcome of public debates because of their connections to other corporations, citizens have a right to question the independence of such media accounts ▪ Give heads up to advertisers on the content of the thing that they are places their ads in ▪ The quest for profits often leads to media that are homogenized and trivial, and the boundaries between commerce and information are rapidly disappearing ▪ The reality is that commercial forces have long influences the profession of journalism and the content of the news ▪ The result is “stealth advertising”, the customer is not even aware of it, advertising can reach particular audiences under conditions in which it is difficult to avoid Saturation – make ads so conspicuous that audiences cannot possibly miss them Economic Liberalism = Conservative conservatives typically like money in all forms: saving, making, and spending to make money. Thus it follows that conservativism concerns its self with matters of economy more than social liberalism would. Social liberalism = modern liberalism (liberals) Liberals believe in individual liberties as their maxim. Thus it follows that liberals tend more towards matters of social policy than economic policy. Instead of making money the primary concern, assumed freedoms would form much of the discourse in their circles. Economic liberals are pro-business and care for large enterprise, free markets, and deregulation. Social liberals believe in market moderation and focus on prudent consumer management. They treat the consumer as the end, and not the means. But in doing so, they lose out on economic opportunity. so, the oppositions basically are that you either take profit/power or social progress. ▪ MIT 2100 mid-term Review Sopa:TheStopOnlinePiracyAct (SOPA) isaUnitedStatesbill introducedbyU.S.to expandtheabilityofU.S.lawenforcementtofightonlinetraffickingin copyrighted intellectualpropertyandcounterfeitgoods.Provisionsincludetherequestingofcourt orderstobar advertisingnetworksandpaymentfacilitiesfromconductingbusinesswith infringingwebsites,andsearchenginesfromlinkingtothesites,andcourtordersrequiring Internetserviceproviderstoblockaccesstothesites.Thelawwouldexpandexisting criminallawstoincludeunauthorizedstreamingofcopyrightedcontent,imposinga maximumpenaltyoffiveyearsin prison.A similar bill in theU.S.Senateistitledthe PROTECT IP Act (PIPA).Supporters:Proponentsofthelegislationstateit will protectthe intellectual-propertymarketandcorrespondingindustry,jobsandrevenue,andis necessarytobolsterenforcementofcopyrightlaws,especiallyagainstforeignwebsites. Claimingflawsin presentlawsthatdonotcoverforeign-ownedandoperatedsites,and citingexamplesof"activepromotionofroguewebsites"byU.S.searchengines,proponents assertstrongerenforcementtoolsareneeded.Opponentsstatetheproposedlegislation threatensfreespeechandinnovation,andenableslawenforcementtoblockaccesstoentire internetdomainsduetoinfringingcontentpostedonasingleblogor webpage.Theyhave raisedconcernsthat SOPAwouldbypassthe"safeharbor" protectionsfromliability presentlyaffordedtoInternetsitesbytheDigital MillenniumCopyrightAct.Library associationshaveexpressedconcernsthatthelegislation'semphasisonstrongercopyright enforcementwouldexposelibrariestoprosecution.Other opponentsstatethat requiring searchenginestodeleteadomainnamecouldbeginaworldwidearmsraceof unprecedentedcensorshipoftheWebandviolatestheFirstAmendment.OnJanuary18, 2012,theEnglishWikipedia,Reddit,andanestimated7,000othersmallerwebsites coordinatedaserviceblackout,or postedlinksandimagesin protestagainstSOPAand PIPA, in aneffort toraiseawareness.In excessof160millionpeopleviewedWikipedia's banner.A numberofotherprotestactionswereorganized,includingpetitiondrives,with Googlestatingit collectedover7millionsignatures,boycottsofcompaniesthatsupportthe legislation,andarally heldin NewYork City.In responsetotheprotestactions,the RecordingIndustryAssociationofAmerica(RIAA) stated,"It's adangerousandtroubling developmentwhentheplatformsthat serveasgatewaystoinformationintentionallyskew thefactstoincitetheir usersandarm themwithmisinformation",and"it'sverydifficultto counterthemisinformationwhenthedisseminatorsalsoowntheplatform."Thesitesof severalpro-SOPAorganizationssuchasRIAA, CBS.com,andotherswereslowedor shut downwithdenialofserviceattacksstartedonJanuary19.Self-proclaimedmembersofthe "hacktivist" groupAnonymousclaimedresponsibilityandstatedtheattackswereaprotest ofbothSOPAandtheUnitedStatesDepartmentofJusticeshutdownofMegauploadthat sameday.[2]
Opponentsofthebill haveproposedtheOnlineProtectionandEnforcementof Digital TradeAct (OPEN) asanalternative.[3]
On January20,2012,HouseJudiciary CommitteeChairmanSmithpostponedplanstodraft thebill: "Thecommitteeremains committedtofindingasolutiontotheproblemofonlinepiracythat protectsAmerican intellectualpropertyandinnovation... TheHouseJudiciaryCommitteewill postpone considerationofthelegislationuntil thereiswideragreementonasolution."Kopimism: TheMissionaryChurchofKopimism(in SwedishMissionerandeKopimistsamfundet), foundedby19-year-oldphilosophystudentIsakGerson,[1]
isacongregationoffilesharers whoclaimthat copyinginformationisasacredvirtue.[2]
TheChurch,basedin Sweden,hasbeenofficiallyrecognizedbytheSwedishLegal,FinancialandAdministrative ServicesAgency("kammarkollegiet") asareligiouscommunity,after threeapplication attempts.SoundBiteSociety:Criticsontherightclaimthat themediaareliberal; butthose sameconservativesareusingelectronicmediawithgreatsuccess.THE SOUND BITE SOCIETY arguesthat televisionisideallysuitedtoflickeringsoundbitesandsimple, visceralmessagesandimages;televisionrelentlesslysimplifies,andsimplicityisthecore principleofconservatism.TV likewisepunishescomplexideasandmessages,whicharethe coreofliberalism.Televisionisthusahandmaidenofconservativeidealsandanobstacleto progressiveones.We arenowaccustomedto24/hr newscyclessuchasCNN. Escapism: habitualdiversionofthemindtopurelyimaginativeactivityor entertainmentasanescape fromrealityor routine.TV showsareusedtoimaginesomethingbetterfor ourselves. PROTO UTOPIAN. Thishelpsusdecidenotwhoweare,butwhowewishtobecome. Escapismif for morethanentertainment/distraction.We gainasenseofourselvesandhow wecanrelatetoothers.Identitypolitics:dailylifehowpowerisnegotiatedbetweensmaller groupsofpeople.Are politicalargumentsthatfocusupontheselfinterestandperspectives ofself-identifiedsocialinterestgroupsandwaysin whichpeople'spoliticsmaybeshapedby aspectsoftheir identitythroughrace,class,religion,gender,sexualorientationor traditionaldominance.Notall membersofanygivengrouparenecessarilyinvolvedin identitypolitics.Minority influenceisacentralcomponentofidentitypolitics.Minority influenceisaform ofsocialinfluencewhichtakesplacewhenamajorityisbeinginfluenced toacceptthebeliefsor behaviorofaminority.Unlikeotherformsofinfluencethisusually involvesa personalshift in privateopinion.Thispersonalshift in opinioniscalled conversion.Thistypeofinfluenceismostlikelytotakeplaceif theminorityisconsistent, flexibleandappealingtothemajority.PowerofMediaexertsonidentitypolitics.Example; 15yearsagoBurstonwouldnothaveannouncedheisgay.With helpofEllen,Will and GraceandGlee,hefelt freelyacceptedandcomfortable.Liberal pluralism:thinksif weall learntocommunicatetoeachothereffectivelyour systemwill work. Politicaleconomists disagree.Helpsclarifysomeofthecomplexitiesofreal-worldpoliticalactionandpoints towardadistinctiveconceptionofpublicphilosophyandpublicpolicy.It leadstoavisionof agoodsocietyin whichpoliticalinstitutionsareactivein adelimitedsphereandin which, withinbroadlimits,families,civilassociations,andfaithcommunitiesmayorganizeand conductthemselvesin waysthatarenotcongruentwithprinciplesthatgovernthepublic sphere.Liberalismisthebeliefin theimportanceoflibertyandequalrights.Liberals espouseawidearray ofviewsdependingontheir understandingoftheseprinciples,but generallyliberalssupportideassuchasconstitutionalism,liberal democracy,freeandfair elections,humanrights,capitalism,andfreedomofreligion.Liberalismfirstbecamea powerfulforcein theAgeofEnlightenment,rejectingseveralfoundationalassumptionsthat dominatedmostearlier theoriesofgovernment,suchasnobility,establishedreligion, absolutemonarchy,andtheDivineRightofKings.Theearlyliberalthinker JohnLocke, whoisoftencreditedfor thecreationofliberalismasadistinctphilosophicaltradition, employedtheconceptofnatural rightsandthesocialcontracttoarguethattheruleoflaw shouldreplaceabsolutismin government,that rulersweresubjecttotheconsentofthe governed,andthat privateindividualshadafundamentalright tolife,liberty,and property.Therevolutionariesin theAmericanRevolutionandtheFrenchRevolutionused liberalphilosophytojustifythearmedoverthrowoftyrannicalrule.Thenineteenthcentury sawliberalgovernmentsestablishedin nationsacrossEurope,Latin America,andNorth America.Liberal ideasspreadevenfurther in thetwentiethcentury,whenliberal democraciestriumphedin twoworldwarsandsurvivedmajor ideologicalchallengesfrom fascismandcommunism.Today,liberalismin itsmanyformsremainsasapoliticalforceto varyingdegreesofpowerandinfluenceonall major continents.A twenty-firstcentury developmentisanemergingnewliberalismthat iscentredontheconceptoftimeless freedom(ensuringthefreedomoffuturegenerationsthroughproactiveactiontakentoday). [8]
 ThisisanideathathasbeenendorsedbythePresidentofLiberal InternationalHans vanBaalen.Homoeconomicus:or Economichuman,istheconceptin someeconomic theoriesofhumansasrationalandnarrowlyself-interestedactorswhohavetheabilityto makejudgmentstowardtheir subjectivelydefinedends.We existaspeoplewhothink sensibly.Homoeconomicusisseenas"rational" in thesensethat well-beingasdefinedby theutilityfunctionisoptimizedgivenperceivedopportunities.That is,theindividualseeks toattainveryspecificandpredeterminedgoalstothegreatestextentwiththeleastpossible cost.Notethat thiskindof"rationality" doesnotsaythattheindividual'sactualgoalsare "rational" in somelargerethical,social,or humansense,onlythat hetriestoattainthemat minimalcost.OnlynaïveapplicationsoftheHomoeconomicusmodelassumethatthis hypotheticalindividualknowswhatisbestfor hislong-term physicalandmentalhealthand canbereliedupontoalwaysmaketherightdecisionfor himself.PERFECT infodoesNOT exist.DualProductMarket: Mediafirmssimultaneouslytradein twodistinctmarkets– content(program)andadvertising.–Sellingcontenttotheaudience–Sellingadvertising capacitytoadvertisers.Attentionofconsumeraudiences.Opportunitiesofpotentialsale MediaCommodities:morethanmerecommoditiesbecausetheytakepowerfulmessagesto changetheworld.[Conventionaleconomistslookat themasmerecommodity.Dual purpose of1.Makingmoneyfor thosewhocreateand2.Helpsocietyfigureoutwhotheyare.Term politicaleconomyismoreusedin CanadathanUSA.Freemarketisamarketwhereprices aredeterminedbysupplyanddemand.Freemarketscontrastwithcontrolledmarketsin whichgovernmentsactivelyregulatepricesand/or supplies.freemarketsconsidertheterm toimplythat
More Less

Related notes for Media, Information and Technoculture 2100F/G

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.