MIT 1700 Midterm Exam Review (6 Pages of Notes)

6 Pages
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Department
Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
Media, Information and Technoculture 2200F/G
Professor
Kane Faucher

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Description
MIT 1700 Review February 7, 2011 - Information is everything. - email, weather network, brain signals, syllabus etc. - retailers use information to persuade you - credit cards are information condensed - temperature is information. Thermostats regulate the temperature of a room based on information output. - Info is not: - knowledge (which is organized use of info) - data - opinion/belief - Organizational problems are problems with information. World is governed by information and organizational strategies. - Total Information = 0. If you had all of the information in the world you would have nothing. Information only has value when it’s circulated. Info is everything and nothing at the same time. - Public Information is tended by many intermediaries - willful distortion - telephone game - Willful modifications: selective additions/omissions, censorship - misinterpreting data = accidental modification - Info can be more predictable/useful through patterning. - A portion of the population should represent the whole; how statistical data is calculated. Information Triad (control-information-organization) - All are interconnected - We can speak of information as reality (footprint in snow) for reality (instruction manual) or about reality (LTC Bus Schedule) GDI - Information must contain data. Data must be structured, and structured data must have meaning. - Data is bits and bobs that haven’t been structured yet; they have no meaning. - Syntax: how data is put together in some sequence. Still doesn’t give meaning though. - Alien language has no meaning for us because we don’t understand it. It would have meaning for those who could read it. Library of Babel - potentially infinite - Data is something that is distinct from something else. Something unique against something uniform (Duck Duck Goose - the goose is the surprise, the unique thing) - Data gives you the ability to perform an action - Silence/Absence is data - Your phone not turning on is data because it gives you the information that your phone is dead MIT 1700 Review February 7, 2011 Analog Data - continuous, single purpose, operates in real time. Analog machines store information that is proportional to the real world - Traditional clock has gears and wheels gaged to move at certain intervals. Sundial, record player and book are all analog data. - 0 processing time Digital Data - Discrete, discontinuous. Coded, needs to be decoded. MP3 player, cellphone. - Our bodies seem digital: brain, retrieval audio system, memories. - We encode information through thinking and abstraction - Nerves are digital and analog. Reflexes;analog. Pain; digital Binary Data - Yes/No system. No gray area. - Bit is the smallest unit of information. Encoded, interpreted, displayed. - Light switch is either on/off, so it’s binary. Primary Data - Raw/pure data, stored in a database. Hasn’t been interpreted yet. - 312 dentists agree that our toothpaste is the best. Secondary Data - Absence of information is information. - 312 dentists agree our toothpaste is the best… out of 18 000 polled - meaningful after interpreted Metadata - Data about data. - Looking up a book in Weldon gives you information about the book that isn’t even in the book itself (the location of the book) - tagging on Facebook to organize photos - helps drive you to relevant content. - taking notes/highlighting is metadata because it gives one word more importance than another. Operational Data - Dynamic data that tells us about the system (cell phone low battery signal, car light warnings, passing out from low blood sugar) Derivative Data - Data inferred from source data. - Data given: “ZOMG! CUL8R” - We know that this was sent via MSN or cell, and probably happened before 1998. Environmental Data - how fossils are found/dated (animal tracks, tree rings, cloud movements) Factual Information - Is not opinion, belief, or experience. They can’t be substantiated objectively through empirical testing. Mis-Information - false/inaccurate information without the deliberate intention to deceive. Dis-Information - false/inaccurate information with the deliberate intent to deceive. MIT 1700 Review February 7, 2011 INFORMATION REVOLUTIONS - Printing Press (1450) - Scientific (1500) - Religious (1600) - Industrial (1750) - Darwin (1860) - Freud (1920) - Information (1940) - In the 1400’s all knowledge came from Bible and Aristotle. Knowledge economy was controlled by the 10% of the population that could read (the church). - Information was hoarded by the Church. People still thought the world was flat. Only the wealthy/church could afford books. A book used to be a huge investment. Scribal Labour - Monks were paid to copy out books; bad working conditions; No such thing as book publishing. - Monks would write notes in the margins – the closest thing they had to writing their own books - Marginalia: lesser importance, a side note (margins) Pictorial Info - The Church used evocative imagery (stained glass windows) to carry out information in a medium the public would understand. - Church controlled the message. They had literacy and case, a monopoly on information. - Transmission of information was slow because of having to rely on hand copied books. - Probability for error was high because of this. Gutenberg - Developed revolutionary movable type that facilitated invention of the printing press. - Because of the printing press: - Information can travel faster - Ideas can be easily reproduced - More people have access to information and can read it (increased literacy) - More discussion of ideas - Authors became more important, alphabet was standardized - Cost to produce came down - Church no longer had control on what was published. Scientific Revolution - Aristotle and Bible seen as indisputable sources. - 1543 the idea that Earth is the center of the universe was challenged. Galileo - Paid for ideas with his life and invented the telescope - Do we obtain knowledge from the world by faith or reason? Inductive Method - Based on experiment/observation - Revises old assumptions about Aristotle. - We can’t make any absolute claims about the universe because we don’t know everything. - If there’s no surprise, there’s no information. - Sense extenders = microscopes and telescopes. Reformation MIT 1700 Review February 7, 2011 - Martin Luther’s 95 Theses circulated fast because printing press translated the Bible into languages that people could actually understand it - democratized it. - Now people can make decisions for themselves about the Bible. Humanism - Reason needs to work unfettered by matters of faith. - Freedom of thought rejects Aristotle and Clericalism. - We have a mind that can think for itself, Church is hindering us. Industrial Revolution - Newspapers become strong/viable source of information about state matters. - A monarchy having an army at its disposal doesn’t guarantee control (French Rev.) People who weren’t content could now express their ideas. - MIght of Arms was now the Might of In
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