MIT1500G Exam Review April 2014

8 Pages
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Department
Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
Media, Information and Technoculture 2500A/B
Professor
John Reed

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MIT1500G Exam Review John Reed 2014 February 26, 2014 Lecture – McLuhan, Alan Kay Terms: 1. McLuhan a. The environment that man creates becomes his medium for defining his role in it. b. Invention of type created linear, or sequential, thought, separating thought from action. c. TV/Folk Singing – thought and action are closer and social involvement is grater d. Again we live in a village e. Communication theorist f. Four laws of media i. Every medium enhances, accelerates, or makes possible something ii. Every medium pushes aside something or renders it obsolescent iii. Every medium retrieves something iv. Every medium reverses into something else when pushed to the limit g. Coined the term Global Village 2. Medium a. Electric Technology i. Reshaping and restructuring patterns of social interdependence and every aspect o four persona life ii. Forcing us to reconsider and reevaluate almost every thought, action, institution formerly taken from granted. 3. Interface a. Point in which two systems, subjects, organizations, etc., meet and interact b. Device or program enabling a user to communicate with a computer i. Device or program for connecting two items of hardware or software so that they can be operated jointly or communicate with each other c. Wars, revolutions, civil uprisings are interfaces within the new environments created by electrical informational media. 4. Metamedium a. A machine that could be designed in a way that any owner could mold and channel its power to his own needs – new kind of medium is created = Metamedium 5. Relations between Hardware 6. Symbols and Culture a. Kay drew on theories of psychologists (Piaget, Papert, Bruner) who had studied intuitive capacities for learning present in the child’s mind and the role that symbols and images play in the construction of complex concepts. i. “Doing with images makes symbols” 1. Premise behind the GUI a. Enabled computers users to formulate ideas in real time by manipulating icons on the computer screen 7. GUI a. New approach to interactive computing b. Graphical User Interface c. Alan Kay d. “Navigating” information space via the mouse in computing e. Most crucial advancement of human-computer interactivity f. Idea of iconic, graphical representations of computing functions – folders, menus, overlapping windows on the desktop – based on his research into the intuitive processes of learning and creativity g. Designing an intuitive, easy-to-use interface required subtle understanding of dynamics of human perception h. Wiener – concept of the digital computer modeled after the brain i. Sophisticated network of message passing and synoptic relays i. Kay – deeper in this direction Biological/Artificial Themes: 1. Massage 2. Age of Anxiety a. Result of trying to do today’s job with yesterday’s tools-with yesterday’s concepts 3. Media as an Extension a. All media are extensions of some human faculty – psychic or physical 4. Electric Circuitry a. “Overthrown the regime of time and space” b. “Pours upon us instantly and continuously the concerns of other men” c. “Reconstituted dialogue on a global scale” d. Message = Total change ending psychic, social, economic, and political parochialism e. Old civic state and national grouping become unworkable f. Extension of CNS (Central Nervous System) g. Alters environment, changing the way we think and act and perceive the world h. “When these ratios change, men change” 5. Acoustic Age a. Boundless, Directionless, Horizonless b. Dark of the Mind c. World of emotion d. By primordial intuition and terror e. Speech = Social chart 6. Printing Age a. Confirmed and extended new visual stress b. First uniformly repeatable “commodity” c. Assembly line – Mass Production d. Portable Book e. Man could now inspire and conspire f. New cult of individualism g. Private, fixed POV became possible h. Literacy conferred power of detachment, non-involvement i. “Ditto Device” 7. Global Village a. Emphasizes that through electronic media, distances cease to be a barrier to communication b. “Simultaneous Happening” 8. Authorship a. Individual intellectual effort related to the book as an economic commodity b. Unknown before print technology c. Medieval scholars indifferent to precise identity of the “books” March 5, 2014 Lecture – Licklider, Weiser Garfinkel, Leonard Terms: 1. Decentralization a. Shift authority from central to local 2. ARPANET a. Advanced Research Projects Agency Network b. First operational packet switching networks c. First network to implement TCP/IP d. Progenitor of what was to become the global internet 3. Digital Networks a. Connection of communities via technology or interconnected computers 4. Node a. Piece of a networking system connected to a network b. Point in which lines intersect or connect pathways or branches c. Central or connecting point 5. Packets a. Formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network b. 2 kinds of data – control information and user data 6. Affect a. Affective labor b. Immaterial labor i. Service 7. Licensing a. To give permission 8. UBICOMP a. Ubiquitous Computing b. Third wave in computing c. “Third Paradigm” computing d. Mark Weiser e. Roughly the opposite of virtual reality f. Forces computer to live out here in the world with people g. Difficult integration of human factors, computer science, engineering, and social science h. “tabs” “pads” “boards” i. Xerox j. Kicked off boom in mobile computing research k. Does not live in personal devices of any sort but is in the woodwork everywhere 9. Cloud a. Online services set content free from the physical world’s constraints b. Changes definition of possession c. Belon
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