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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Kevin Thompson

Introduction To Consumer BehaviourWhat Is Consumer BehaviourThe study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select purchase use or dispose of products services ideas or experiences to satisfy needs wants and desires o Identifying opportunities o Defining markets o Segmentation o Building relationships o Produce o Place o Price o PromotionDemographics gender income occupationPsychographics lifestyle and personalityConsumers Impact On MarketingConsumption communities via the internet allow idea sharing and recommendations for consumptionVarious subcultures share certain valuesBrands have defined images that resonate with consumers and result in brand loyaltyVarious groups influence consumer choices by individuals and organizational buyersConsumer Behaviour Is A Process Consumers Perspective Marketers Perspective How does a consumer decide that heshe How are consumer attitudes toward needs a productWhat are the best sources of products formed andor changedWhat Pre purchase Issues information to learn more about alternative cues do consumers use to infer which choices products are superior to others Is acquiring a product a stressful or pleasant How do situational factors such as time Purchase Issues experienceWhat does the purchase say about pressure or store displays affect the the consumer consumers purchase decision What determines whether a consumer Does the product provide pleasure or perform will be satisfied with a product and its intended functionHow is the product whether heshe will buy it againDoes Post purchase Issues eventually disposed of and what are the this person tell others about hisher environmental consequences of this act experiences with the product and influence their purchase decisionsImpact Of Marketing StrategyKnowledge and data about customers o Help to define the market o Identify threatsopportunities in relation to a brandSegmenting Consumers DemographicsObservable countable population characteristicsSegmenting Consumers PsychographicsMuch more difficult to measure than demographicsPersonalityLifestylesPatterns of living as expressed by AIO dimensionsCultures subcultures ethnic identity organized religionRolesValuesAttitudesIntentionsCognitions perceptionsEmotionsAbilities intelligence Role TheoryPeople play different roles and their consumption behaviours may differ depending on the particular role they are playingThe Meaning Of ConsumptionPeople often buy products not for what they do but for what they mean o BrandsConvey imagepersonalityDefine our place in modern societyHelp us to form bonds with others who share similar preferencesStrong brand relationships evolve over time and resemble deep relationshipsMarketing And RealityDifficult to separate popular culture and marketing effortsTelevision programmes ads and brands are all part of individual lifestylesBrand RelationshipsSelf concept attachmentNostalgic attachmentInterdependenceLove Love MarkEthical Standards Of ConductPrescribed code of ethics guidelines o Disclosure of substantial risks with a product o Identifying added features that will increase the cost o Avoiding false or misleading advertising o Avoiding selling or fundraising under the guise of market research The Cognitive Consumer Perception Learning And MemorySensationsColors sounds odors tastes etc o Marketers contribute greatly to commotion o Advertisements packaging radioTV commercials billboards internet adsbanners produce placementWe pay attention to some stimuli tune out others o What we do pay attention to we interpret from our unique experiences biases and desiresSensation o Immediate response of our sensory receptorseyes ears nose mouth fingers o Basic stimulilight colour sound odour and textureSensations And PerceptionsPerception o Process by which sensations are selected organized interpretedAdding meaning to raw sensationsSensory SystemsUnique sensory quality of product o Differentiation from competitionHedonic consumption o Demand for derived pleasure over and above functionality of the productVisionVisionAdvertising store design packagingColour o Cognitions associations o Provokes emotion affect o Reactions to color biologicalcultural SizeWe tend to eat more whenfood container is larger our plate still contains food we see assortment of foodsWe focus on height rather than width when pouring liquid into a glassSmell And HearingOdours mood and memory limbic system o Scented marketingCadillacs Nuance scentexpensive upholsteryMost recognized smells JJ Baby Powder chocolate and coconutReactions to odors depend on cultural backgroundFragrancesMany aspects of sound affect peoples feelings and behaviours o Phonemes of brandunique product meanings o I brands are lighter than a brands o Effect of Muzak o CulturelanguagesoundsPronunciationMistranslations Bite the wax tadpole Coke or Eat your fingers off KFCTouch And TasteHaptic touching senses affect product experience and judgment o Kansei engineeringDesign with feelings in mind o Fabric textures and surfaces with products and packagingTasteExperience o Developing new concoctions for consumer palates o Culturelearning from exposure helps share desirable tastes ie Thai FoodExposureA stimulus comes within range of someones sensory receptors o We can concentrate ignore or completely miss stimuliSensory Thresholds o Psychophysicsstudy of how the physical world makes it to our brain o Absolute thresholdminimum detectedDog whistlewe cant hear itBillboard with too much printwe choose to ignore itAny add with too much verbage on itignoreCopy we find offensive when we decode it o Differential thresholdJNDjust noticeable differenceWebers lawdifferences are relativeReductions are not readily discernible to the publicor are theyProduct improvements are perceived by the publicwhenMany studies have shown that our sensory detection abilities decline as we grow older o Subliminal perceptionIt is believed that many ads are designed to be perceived unconsciously below threshold of recognitionDoes subliminal advertising workEthics o James Vicarys infamous experiments claimed at a New Jersey DriveIn movie 1957AttentionThe extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus o Sensory overload3500 ad info pieces per dayMultitaskingMarketers need to break through the clutterPerceptual selectivity o Consumers attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed toThe Way The Brain Buys ActivityEmerging marketing research on buyer behaviour o Time needed to gearup for shopping decompression zone Bargain bins hint at deals o Walmart greetersFresh fruitveggies at entranceEveryday items bread milk at back of store popular items in middle of aisles
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