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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1023A/B
Kevin Thompson

BMOS FINAL EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 4 Human Resource Planning - Strategic plans tend to be broader in scope, longer in time frames (two to three years), provide overall direction, and apply to the entire organization - It is important that the line manager link the goals of the company to the skills of the people employed - Human Resource Planning: process that the people required to run the company are being used as effectively as possible, where and when they are needed, in order to accomplish the organizations goals Linking HR planning to Strategic Planning - Strategic planning involves the allocation of resources, including the people resources f the organization, HR planning is aligned to ensure the objectives are met - Succession planning has become a key point of interest within organizations - Organizations are concern3e about developing leaders for the future and focusing efforts on training and development programs so that leaders have competencies to keep pace with the direction of the organization - Planning occurs more systematically in medium and larger orgaizations - Small entrepreneurial organizations tend to approach HR staffing needs on a more short term basis HR Planning approaches - Forecasting can be done through quantitative approaches such as trend analysis or through qualitative approaches such as management forecasts - Trend analysis: quantitative approach to forecasting labour demand on an organizational index such as units of production - Management forecasts: opinions and judgements of supervisors or managers and others that are knowledgeable about the organizations future employment needs - Staffing tables: graphic representations of organizational jobs along with the numbers of employees currently occupying those jobs and future employment needs - Markov analysis: method for tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs - Skills inventory: information about the education, experiences, skills of staff etc.. Results of HR Planning - The outcome of HR planning is to achieve a useable balance between the demand for and supply of employees Oversupply of labour - Attrition: is the natural departure of employees through people quitting, retiring, or dying - If organizations can predict the excess supply of employees is more short term, it may suggest that some employees take a leave of absence without pay, that they job share, reduce working hours (and pay), or the organization can redeploy people to units that have need Shortage of labour - Organization may request that employees work extra hours, such as during peak periods - Hire part time staff to cover for absences of regular, full time employees - May go to a temporary employment agency to acquire shirt term staff - Could increase the use of overtime, enhance retention strategies - Employees could be leased Recruitment - Recruitment: the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for jobs - Informs the applicants about the qualifications required to perform the job and career opportunities the organization can offer its employees - Important to focus on employee retention and accessing new talent - Some cases require organizations to consider its branding from a future employee perspective - Branding: refers to the need to have total and holistic approach to how the marketplace sees the company and/or products Recruiting within the organization - Most organizations try to follow a policy of filling job vacancies above the entry level position through promotions and transfers - This means it can capitalize on the investment it has made in recruiting, selecting, training, and developing its current employees Advantages - Promotion serves to reward employees for past performance and is intended to encourage them to continue their efforts - Makes use of the people who already know the organization and the contribution they have made - Gives other employees reason to anticipate that similar efforts by them will lead to promotion, thus improving morale - Tranfers can also serve to protect employees from layoff or to broaden their job experiences - Tranfers can eliminate the orientation and the training costs Methods of locating qualified internal job candidates Human resource information systems - Organizations have developed resume-tracking systems that allow managers to query an online database of resumes - Information systems allow an organization to rapidly screen its entire workforce to locate suitable candidates to fill an internal opening Succession planning - Succession planning: the process of identifying, developing, and tracking key employees for future promotions - succession plans rely upon the organization identifying its long term goals, outlining the competencies required, making sure the employee is developed in order to assume other roles and take on other responsibilities Internal Job Posting - voluntary lists of employees looking for upgraded positions - using technology including web based solutions, to determine if any staff have necessary skills for a certain role - employees should be made aware of opportunities available within the organization Limitations of recruiting from within - sometimes certain jobs that require specialized training and experience cannot be filled from within the organization (especially in small companies) - can inbreed ideas and attributes Recruiting from outside the corporation - usually external recruitment is organized and coordinated by an HR department with the line manager frequently giving suggestions about where to recruit, such as an ad in a newspaper or professional journal - brings new ideas and different styles Advantages and disadvantages of external recruitment - a disadvantage to external recruitment is the lack of solid information about the person’s performance on the job - person may not know the industry or organization, necessitating more extensive orientation and training - may be salary levels that limit the pool of applicants - legislative requirements that limit the pool of applicants Labour Markets - Labour market: area from which applicants are recruited - During periods of high unemployment, organizations may be able to maintain an adequate supply of qualified applicants from unsolicited resumes alone - Canada has relied on immigration to assist in meeting the demand for labour Outside sources for recruitment - Trade schools can provide applicants for entry level positions, though these recruitment sources are not as useful when highly skilled employees are needed Advertisements Internet - Internet is faster and cheaper - Checking postings on the internet is the most commonly used search tactic by job seekers Employment agencies - Employment agencies, including executive search firms and temporary employment agencies, attempt to match applicants with the specific needs of a company - Job seekers cannot be charged for helping in finding work - Executive search firms, also known as head hunters are employment agencies that typically focus on senior level and executive level managerial positions Educational institutions - Source of young applicants with formal training but relatively little full time work experience - High schools are usually a source of employees for clerical and blue collar jobs - Community colleges can provide candidates for technical jobs - Can also be a source of applicants for a variety of whute collar jobs including those in sales and retail - The primary source of technical and managerial positions are universities Open houses and job fairs - Use this to recruit new employees, particularly if the organization is expanding or is looking for particular types of skills Employee referrals - Recommendations made from other employees - Managers have found that the quality of employee referred applicants is normally quite high, since employees are generally hesitant to recommend individuals who might not perform well - The effectiveness of this recruitment effort can be increased by paying commissions to employees when they make a successful “recruitment sale” - Other incentives include paid time and travel Unsolicited applications and resumes - It is a source that cannot be ignored Professional organizations - A placement centre is usually established at national meetings for the mutual benefit of employers and job seekers Unions - Labour unions can be a principal source of applicants for blue collar and some professional jobs Recruitment for diversity - Federal employment equity legislation are expect that companies should have a recruitment program that focuses on the designated groups of women, visible minorities, people with disabilities, and first nations people - Managers may also be actively involved in recruitment “outreach” programs, where they speak at ethnic community centres to let people know about employment opportunities with their company Selection - It is usually the line managers responsibility to make the final decision Matching people and jobs - Selection: is the process of choosing individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected job openings - The objective is to have information that will predict job performance of the candidate in the organization - Interviews, rederences, psychological tests are examples of selection methods that access the competencies and match these against the requirements of the job and the needs of the organization The selection process - Hiring decision, reference checks, supervisory or team interview, employment tests, initial screening/interviewing by HR person, completion of application form or submission of resume Obtaining reliable and valid information - Reliability: the degree to which interviews, tests, and other selection procedures yield comparable data over time and alternative measures - Validity: how well a test or section procedure measures a person’s attributes Sources of information about job candidates Application forms and resumes - Provide a fairly quick and systematic means of obtaining a variety of information about the applicant 1. Provide information for deciding whether an applicant meets the minimum requirements 2. Provide a basis for questions the interviewer will ask about the applicants background 3. Offer sources for reference checks - Application should have: application date, educational background experience, arrests and criminal convictions, country of citizenship, references, disabilities Employment interview - Practical when there are only a small number of applicants - Serves other purposes such as public relations - Interviewers maintain great faith and confidence in
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