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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR MIDTERM CHAPTERS 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 CHAPTER 1: Define organizations and describe their basic characteristics:  Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort.  Social inventions: characterized by the coordinated presence of people  The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively.  Goal accomplishment in OB terms is concerned with how organizations survive and adapt to change. Therefore, people must o Be motivated to join and remain o Carry out basic work reliably o Continuously learn & upgrade skills & knowledge o Be flexible and innovative  Group Effort: The interaction and coordination among people to accomplish organizational goals.  The field of Organizational Behaviour (OB) is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork. Explain the concept of organizational behavior and describe the goals of the field:  Organizational Behaviour: The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations.  We will explore o The role of organizational culture on the effectiveness of organizations o How employees in organizations learn o How organizations motivate employees o How managers communicate with employees  Why study OB? o It’s interesting o It’s important o It makes a difference  The workforce (human capital) can create a sustainable competitive advantage for organizations  Goals of Organizational Behaviour (OB): to provide a systemic understanding of behavioural science that assists us in o Predicting OB o Explaining OB and why events occur o Managing OB by taking appropriate action Define management and describe what manages do to accomplish goals:  Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. 1  What managers (should) do: Manage OB by taking action using an analytic approach. Contrast the classical viewpoint of management with that which the human relations movement advocated:  Classical Viewpoint: advocated high specialization of labour, intensive coordination, and centralized decision making.  Frederick Taylor’s Scientific Management system used research to determine the optimal degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks.  Max Weber advocated Bureaucracy o A strict chain of command o Selection & promotion based on technical competence o Detailed rules, regulations and procedures o High specialization o Centralized power  Expected results: standardized behaviour and worker security.  The Human Relations Movement advocated more participatory management styles oriented towards employees needs.  The Hawthorne Studies (1920’s & 1930’s) illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment.  Human Relations Movement especially critiqued o Strict specialization – incompatible with human need for growth and achievement o Strong centralization – reliance on formal authority loses creativity and knowledge of lower-level employees o Strict, impersonal rules – leads to minimum performance standards o Strong specialization – causes employees to lose sight of overall organizational goals  Both Classical and Human Relations viewpoints have merit o How much control and coordination is optimal? o What are the external and internal environments of the particular organization? Describe the contemporary contingency approach to management:  An organization has many contingencies (dependencies) to deal with.  Contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage. An appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation. Explain what managers do – their roles, activities, agendas for action, and thought processes:  Henry Mintzberg’s study of what managers do divides their roles into 3 main groups: o Interpersonal roles 2  Interpersonal roles are expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relations  In the figurehead role, managers serve as symbols of their organization rather than active decision makers  In the leadership role, managers select, mentor, reward, and discipline employees  In the liaison role, managers maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization o Informational roles  These roles are concerned with the various ways managers receive and transmit information  In the monitor role, managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trends  In the disseminator role, managers send information on both facts and preferences to others  The spokesperson role concerns mainly sending messages into the organization’s external environment o Decisional roles  In the entrepreneur role, managers turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changes  In the disturbance handler role, managers deal with problems stemming from employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turf  In their resource allocation role, managers decide how to deploy time, money, personnel, and other critical resources  In the negotiator role, managers conduct major negotiations with other organizations or individuals  The importance of each role varies with management level.  Managerial Activities: Human Resource Mgmt, Networking, Routine Communication, Traditional Management  Routine communication  this includes the formal sending and receiving of information (as in meetings) and the handling of paperwork 3  Traditional management  planning, decision making, and controlling are the primary types of traditional management  Networking  this consists of interacting with people outside of the organization and informal socializing and politicking with insiders  Human resource management  this includes motivating and reinforcing, disciplining and punishing, managing conflict, staffing, and training and developing employees According to John Kotter, Managerial Agendas of successful managers include: o Agenda setting – what they want to accomplish o Networking – who will help them accomplish this o Agenda Implementation – how they will accomplish their agendas, especially through the use of their networks.  Managerial minds (thought processes), per Simon and Isenberg’s studies, are intuitive in: o Sensing a problem exists o Performing well-learned mental tasks rapidly o Synthesizing isolated pieces of information & data o Double-checking formal or mechanical analysis Describe the societal and global trends that are shaping contemporary management concerns:  International managers find o Technical requirements are the same across all cultures o Behavioural requirements differ across cultures  Values, beliefs, expectations and interpersonal relations vary across cultures  Contemporary Management Concerns currently deals with 4 main issues: 1) Diversity – both locally and globally managers must understand the needs of culturally diverse stakeholders: employees, customers, supplies, etc. 2) Employee – Organizational Relationships – employees are affected by downsizing, restructuring, outsourcing, reengineering.  Consequences include: a. Decreased trust b. Reduced morale and shifting loyalty c. Job dissatisfaction d. Illness, stress, absenteeism 3) Focus on Quality, Speed, and Flexibility  Why? o Intense competition & globalization o Changing customer needs/expectations o Changing economic conditions o Changing environmental conditions  This requires a high degree of employee involvement, commitment, and teamwork 4) Talent Management 4  An organization’s processes for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing people with the required skills to meet current and future business needs.  Two important talent management challenges: o Recruitment of high-quality people across multiple territories, and o Improving the appeal of the company culture and work environment.  What do successful companies do?  Corporate social responsibility (CSR): An organization taking responsibility for the impact of its decisions and actions on its stakeholders. 5 CHAPTER 2: Define personality and discuss its general role in influencing OB:  Personality: the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his or her environment.  Personality is determined by o Genetic predisposition o One’s long-term learning history  Each of us has a unique personality.  Does a person’s behaviour influence the situation?  Or does the situation influence the way a person behaves?  This “person-situation debate” led to 3 approaches to OB Describe the dispositional, situational & interactionist approaches to OB:  The dispositional approach o Focuses on individual disposition and personality that influences our attitude and behaviour o People are predisposed to act in certain ways  The situational approach o Focuses on characteristics of organizational settings (e.g., rewards, punishments) that influence feelings, attitudes and behaviours o Studies show situational factors, such as task characteristics, determine job satisfaction  The interactionist approach o Combines both Dispositional and Situational approaches o In a weak (loosely defined) situation, disposition has the strongest effect o In a strong (clearly defined) situation, disposition has less of an impact  Implications for OB o There is no one best personality o Organizations must appreciate employee diversity o Fit is important: putting the right person in the right job at the right place Discuss the Five-Factor Model of Personality (FFM). 6  The “Big Five” personality dimensions relate to: o Job performance & other work behavior o Motivation o Job and life satisfaction o Job search and career success o Interest and preferences  and tend to apply cross culturally Discuss consequences of locus of control, self-monitoring, & self-esteem:  Locus of control: A set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces. o Internals feel they are in control of their own destiny. o Externals feel they are controlled by fate, luck, etc. o Internals tend to be higher achievers  Self-monitoring is the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings & relationships. 7 o Low self-monitors are not too concerned with fitting in or hiding emotions. o High self-monitors tend to be adaptable i.e. ―act the part‖.  Self-esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation.  The difference between high and low self-esteem relates to the plasticity of their thoughts, attitudes and behaviours  Behavioural plasticity theory: People with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external & social influences than those who have high self-esteem. Discuss positive & negative affectivity:  Positive affectivity: the propensity to view the world, including oneself & other people, in a positive light.  Negative affectivity: the propensity to view the world, including oneself & other people, in a negative light.  PA & NA are emotional dispositions. Discuss proactive personality:  Proactive Personality : A tendency to take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations and to effect positive change in one’s environment.  Positively correlated to performance, tolerance for stress, effectiveness, participation in organizational initiatives, and career success Discuss general self-efficacy:  General self-efficacy (GSE) refers to an individual’s belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations.  GSE is a motivational trait rather than an affective trait. Discuss core self-evaluations:  Core self-evaluations: a broad personality concept consisting of four specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self-worth. These are: o Self-esteem o General self-efficacy o Locus of control o Neuroticism  and relate to overall satisfaction and performance. Define learning and describe what is learned in organizations:  Learning: a relatively permanent change in behaviour potential that occurs due to practice or experience.  Learning stems from an environment that gives feedback concerning the consequences of behaviour.  What is learned in organizations? o Practical skills: job specific 8 o Intrapersonal skills: problem solving, critical thinking, risk taking o Interpersonal skills: communicating, teamwork, conflict resolution o Cultural awareness: organizational norms, priorities and goals Explain operant learning theory and differentiate between positive & negative reinforcements:  Operant learning: the subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequences. o Behaviour results in consequences o Consequences reinforce behaviour o We learn the connection between behaviour & consequences  Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours.  Positive reinforcement: the application or addition of a stimulus (positive reinforcer) that increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour.  Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that, in turn, increases or maintains the probability of some behaviour. o Occurs when a response prevents some event or stimulus from occurring o The removed or prevented stimulus is a negative reinforcer.  Organizational Errors Involving Reinforcement: o Confusing rewards not directly related to behaviour with reinforcement o Neglecting diversity in preferences for reinforcers  Neglecting important sources of reinforcement, e.g.: o Performance feedback: quantitative or qualitative information on past performance for the purpose of changing or maintaining performance in specific ways. o Social recognition: Informal acknowledgement, attention, praise, approval, or genuine appreciation for work well done from one individual or group to another. Explain when to use immediate versus delayed reinforcement and when to use continuous versus partial reinforcement:  Continuous/Immediate Reinforcement o Achieves fast acquisition of some response o If reinforcement stops, behaviour will likely stop  Partial/Delayed Reinforcement o Achieves persistent behaviour o Behaviour will likely continue with intermittent reinforcement 9 Distinguish between extinction and punishment and explain how to use punishment effectively:  Strategies to reduce the probability of undesirable behaviour:  Extinction: the gradual dissipation of behaviour following the termination of reinforcement.  Punishment: the application of an aversive stimulus following some behaviour designed to decrease the probability of that behaviour.  Problems with punishment: o Only indicates what is not appropriate o Does not indicate what is appropriate o Can provoke strong emotional reaction from the punished individual o Tends to be a temporary fix  Using punishment effectively: o Make sure chosen punishment is truly aversive o Punish immediately o Do not reward unwanted behaviour before or after punishment o Do not inadvertently punish desirable behaviour Explain social cognitive theory and discuss observational learning, self- efficacy & self-regulation:  Social Cognitive Theory states that people have the cognitive ability to regulate & control their own thoughts, feelings, motivations and actions o Personal and environmental factors work together to influence behaviour o Behaviour also influences personal and environmental factors 10  Complements Operant Learning Theory  Social Cognitive Theory is best explained through a system of triadic reciprocal causation: 1) Observational Learning a. Observational learning is the process of observing and imitating the behavior of others. 2) Self-efficacy a. Self-efficacy refers to the beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task. 3) Self-regulation a. According to social cognitive theory, employees can use learning principle to manage their own behavior making external control less necessary.  Observational learning: The process of observing and imitating the behaviour of others  Self-efficacy: Beliefs people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task  Self-regulation: the use of leaning principles to regulate one’s own behaviour. This includes: o Collecting self-observation data o Observing models o Setting goals o Rehearsing o Reinforcing oneself Describe various organizational learning practices:  Organizational Behaviour Modification  Systematic use of learning principles to influence Organizational Behaviour 11 o Identify the behaviour to be changed o Identify the desirable behaviour o Use reinforcement, feedback & rewards to promote & support desirable behaviour  Employee Recognition Programs: formal programs that publicly recognize & reward employees for specific behaviour.  Effective programs specify o How a person will be recognized o The type of behaviour being encouraged o The manner of public acknowledgement o A token or icon of the event for the recipient  Training: Planned organizational activities that are designed to facilitate knowledge and skill acquisition to change behaviour and improve performance  One of the most widely used & effective methods is Behaviour Modelling Training (BMT).  Behaviour Modelling Training (BMT) o Clearly defines skills/behaviours to be learned o Provides models that effectively use/show off these skills o Provides opportunities to practise skills o Provides feedback & social reinforcement o Takes steps to maximize transfer of these new skills to the job  Career Development: an ongoing process in which individuals progress through a series of stages that consist of a unique set of issues, themes and tasks. o Involves career planning and career management  Career Planning involves assessing one’s interests, skills & abilities and developing career goals and plans.  Career Management involves taking the necessary steps to achieve career goals e.g., looking for special assignments that assist in career development. 12 CHAPTER 3: Define perception and discuss some of the general factors that influence perception:  Perception: the process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environment.  Perceptual defense: the tendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotions.  Three Components of Perception: Perceiver, (context of) situation & target Explain social identity theory and Bruner’s model of the perceptional process:  Social identity theory (who am I?):  Perceptions people form of themselves and others based on 1) Social identity – relational (e.g. farmer, Canadian) and comparative (e.g. professor and students) social affiliations or categories 2) Personal identity – unique personal characteristics (e.g., interests, abilities)  Bruner’s model of the perceptual process o A perceiver that encounters an unfamiliar target is open to cues that help define and categorize o Once familiar cues are encountered, the perceiver looks for cues to support and confirm categorization of target and tends to ignore cues that violate initial perception 13  Characteristics of the Perceptual Process: o Selectivity – does not consider all cues o Constancy – perceiving the target in the same way over time & across situations o Consistency – selecting, ignoring & distorting cues so they fit together to form a homogenous image of the target Describe the main biases in person perception:  Primacy effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues or first impressions. o First impressions often have lasting effects.  Recency effect: the tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues or last impressions.  Reliance on central traits: personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver (e.g., physical appearance, intellectual capacity)  Implicit personality theories: personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together (e.g., expecting hard workers to be honest)  Projection: the tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts & feelings to others  Stereotyping: the tendency to generalize about people in a certain social category and ignore variations among them (e.g., race, gender, age)  Most stereotypes are inaccurate but o Are reinforced by selective perception o Help us process information about others quickly & efficiently Describe how people form attributions about the causes of behavior: 14  Attribution: the process by which we assign causes or motives to explain people’s behaviour  Dispositional attributions explains behaviour based on an actor’s personality or intellect  Situational attributions explains behaviour based on an actor’s external situation or environment  Other attribution cues people use are: o Consistency cues: how consistently a person engages in some behaviour over time o Consensus cues: how a person’s behaviour compares with others o Distinctiveness cues: the extent to which a person engages in some behaviour across a variety of situations Discuss various biases in attribution:  Fundamental attribution error is the tendency to overemphasize dispositional explanations for behaviour at the expense of situational explanations.  Actor-observer effect is the propensity for actors and observers to view the causes of the actor’s behaviour differently.  Self-serving bias is the tendency to take credit for successful outcomes and to deny responsibility for failures. Discuss the concepts of workforce diversity and valuing diversity:  Workforce diversity: differences among recruits and employees in characteristics such as gender, race, age, religion, cultural background, physical ability, or sexual orientation.  Why is this an issue in organizations today?  The Changing Workplace o The labour pool is becoming more diverse o Organizations need to reflect customer diversity o Globalization, mergers, strategic alliances require interaction with diverse national & corporate cultures  Valuing diversity (vs. tolerating it):  Diversity and its proper management can yield strategic and competitive advantages: o Improved problem solving and creativity o Improved recruiting and marketing o Improved competitiveness in global markets  Organizations are adopting diversity as part of their corporate strategy.  Competitive advantages to valuing and managing a diverse workforce: o Cost o Resource acquisition o Marketing o Creativity o Problem solving o System flexibility 15 Discuss how racial, ethnic, gender, and age stereotypes affect organizational behavior and what organizations can do to manage diversity:  Stereotype Threat: members of a social group feel they might be judged or treated according to a stereotype and that their behaviour or performance will confirm the stereotype.  Organizational barriers to valuing diversity: 1) Racial and Ethnic stereotyping o Tends to be pervasive, persistent o Is frequently negative and contradictory o Often affects career tracking 2) Gender stereotyping o Successful managers are perceived as possessing predominantly masculine traits and characteristics. 3. 3) Age stereotyping o Generational stereotyping and the perception that older workers have o Less capacity for performance o Less potential for development  Managing Workforce Diversity: o Select enough minorities to get them past token status o Encourage diversity in teams o Ensure decision makers have accurate information about individual employees and their performance o Train people to be aware of stereotypes  Success factors for Diversity Programs: o Build senior management commitment and accountability o Conduct a thorough needs assessment o Develop a well-defined strategy tied to business results o Emphasize team building and group process training o Establish metrics to evaluate the effectiveness of diversity initiatives Define trust perceptions and perceived organizational support and describe organizational support theory:  Trust: a psychological state in which one has a willingness to be vulnerable and to take risks with respect to the actions of another party.  Trust toward management is based on our perception of their ability, benevolence and integrity.  Perceptions of trust in management is related to: o Job satisfaction o Organizational commitment o Job performance o Organizational citizenship o Lower turnover and absenteeism 16  Perceived organizational support (POS): employees’ general belief that their organization values their contribution and cares about their well- being.  Organizational support theory states that employees who have a strong perception of organizational support feel an obligation to care about the organization’s welfare and to help the organization achieve it’s objectives. Discuss person perception and perceptual biases in human resources:  Person Perceptions in human resources (HR) are affected by  The employment interview o Contrast effects: previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewer’s perception of a current applicant, leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants. o More structure, especially standardization & consistency, improves validity  Applicant’s perception of recruitment and selection o Signalling theory (cues about the job and company) o Perception of fairness  Work samples & interviews are viewed more favourably than testing  The performance appraisal o Objective appraisals use performance measures  Easier for lower-level employees o Subjective appraisals are susceptible to perceptual biases  Primacy, recency, stereotypes & other biases  Subjective appraisals are also susceptible to  Rater Errors: o Leniency: tendency to give good ratings o Harshness: tendency to give poor ratings 17 o Central tendency: tendency to give middle-range ratings, no extremes o Halo effect: using one trait or characteristic that the rater thinks is important to influence all ratings o Similar-to-me effect: good ratings for people with background or attitude similar to rater  Techniques for reducing perceptual errors and biases o Use Behaviourally Anchored Rating Scales that give specific behavioural examples of good, average and poor performance. 18 CHAPTER 4: Define values and discuss the implications of cross-cultural variation in values for organizational behavior:  Values: a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others o Person-organization fit is important  Generational differences result from age & different socialization experiences growing up Four generations in today’s workplace:  Cultural difference in values o Work centrality (the importance of work in your life)  Hofstede (and later studies) analyzed 5 basic dimensions of work-related values that differ across cultures  Hofstede’s study: 1) Power distance: the extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members 2) Uncertainty avoidance: the extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations 3) Masculinity/femininity: Masculine cultures clearly differentiate gender roles and stress economic performance. Feminine cultures stress equality and quality of life. 4) Individualism/collectivism: Individualistic societies stress independence, individual initiative, and privacy. Collective cultures favour interdependence and loyalty to family or clan. 5) Long-term/short-term orientation: Long-term tends to stress persistence, perseverance, thrift, & status differences. 19  Cross-cultural implications: o Importing/exporting OB theories  The basic organizational questions are the same  The answers vary across nations  Appreciating Global Customers o Different values are reflected in different needs, tastes & ways of doing business.  Developing global employees o Companies need to select, train & develop employees to better appreciate difference in, and implications of, cultural values in OB Define attitudes and explain how people develop and change attitudes:  Attitude: a fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person or category of people o A function of what we think and feel  Belief + Value AttitudeBehaviour  Organizations may try to change or modify employee attitudes using forms of persuasion because attitude reflects on o Job satisfaction o Organizational commitment Explain the concept of job satisfaction and discuss some of its key contributors, including discrepancy, fairness, disposition, mood, and emotion, in promising job satisfaction:  Job satisfaction: a collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. o Includes facet satisfaction (i.e., individual components, such as work, compensation, relationship with boss) o Overall satisfaction (i.e., the average of facet satisfaction) 20  What determines job satisfaction? 1) Discrepancy theory: job (dis)satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between job outcomes wanted and the outcomes perceived to be obtained a. Perception is dictated by worker’s value system 2) Fairness: Distributive fairness/justice: occurs when people receive what they think they deserve from their jobs a. Equity theory is a comparison tool that people use to determine distributive fairness  Perceived equity exists when: My Outcomes Other’s Outcomes My Inputs Other’s Inputs o Inputs may be workers’ training, education, hard work o Outcomes may be organizational pay, career opportunities o Equity theory looks at individual contribution  Procedural Fairness/Justice occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. It should: o Follow consistent procedures over time and across people o Use accurate information & appear unbiased o Allow two-way communication during the allocation process o Welcome appeals  Interactional Fairness/Justice occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome  Interactional Unfairness leads to dissatisfaction with boss  Procedural Unfairness leads to dissatisfaction with system 3) Disposition: the contribution of an employee’s personality to their job satisfaction. Some people are predisposed to be more or less happy. a. Refer also to Chapter 2 – ―Big Five‖ personality traits. 4) Mood and Emotion  Emotions: intense, and often short-lived, feelings caused by a particular event. 21  Moods: less intense, longer-lived, and more diffuse feelings  Affective events theory reminds us that jobs consist of a series of events & happenings that have the potential to influence moods & emotions  Emotional contagion: tendency for moods & emotions to spread between people or throughout a group  Emotional regulation: requirement for people to conform to certain ―display rules‖ in their job behavior in spite of their true mood or emotions. o Also called ―emotional labour‖ e.g., a frequent need to suppress negative emotions may decrease
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