Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Midterm: MOS 2181A/B - Midterm Study Notes (ch. 1-8)

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Carol- Lynn Chambers

Chapter 1 Organizational behr: field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, ultimately improving the attitudes behrs of individuals groups in organizations Human resource management: field of study that focuses on the application of OB theories principles in organizations o nuts bolts applications of OB principles o OB study: relationship btwn learning job performance o HRM study: ways to structure training programs to promote employee learning Strategic management: field of study devoted to exploring the product choices industry characteristics that affect an organizations profitability What is OB? (Robbins) A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups structure have on behr within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness Summary Implications (Robbins) Managers employees need to develop their interpersonal (people) skills to be effective in their jobs OB focuses on improving productivity, employee job satisfaction organizational commitment, on reducing absenteeism turnover OB uses systematic study to improve predictions of behr What is an Organization? (Robbins) A consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals. Scientific management: using scientific methods to design optimal efficient work processes tasks Frederick Taylor (father of scientific management) Max Weber classical management scholars o Emphasis on: specialization, coordination, efficiency o Productivity problems (for classical theorists): Job level: design flaws, failure to implement specified processes, inadequate work conditions Organizational level: deficient structural characteristics Organize, coordinate, manage human work activities Cause effect relationships Bureaucracy: organizational form emphasizing control coordination of its members through a strict chain of command, formal rules procedures, high specialization, centralized decision making Max Weber: technically superior method of organizing, coordinating, controlling human work activities Hierarchy: division of labour, strict chain of command, system of formal rules procedures Decisions are made at the top Human relations movement: field of study that recognizes that the psychological attributes of individual works the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behrs Complexity of variables contingency approach o Consequences of situational characteristics depend on characteristics of the individual or vice versa Famous study: Western Electric Companys Hawthorne Plant Productivity problems: worker alienation, work no satisfying personal needsgoals, low organizational commitment, workgroup norms encouraging low performance Characteristics [Kernaghan] a) Policy Mgmt Culture Bureaucratic: OrganizationCentred, Position Power, RuleCentred, Independent Action, StatusQuoOriented, ProcessOriented Postbureaucratic: Clientcentred, Participative Leadership, Peoplecentred, Collective Action, ChangeOriented, Results Oriented Integrative Model of OB 2 primary outcomes in OB studies: job performance organizational commitment Factors Affecting OB the 2 OB Outcomes: Individual characteristics mechanisms: personality, cultural values, ability; job satisfaction; stress; motivation; trust; justice; ethics; learning decision making Relational mechanisms: communication; team characteristics processes; power, influence, negotiation; leadership styles, behrs Organizational mechanisms: organizational structure; organizational culture change Building a Conceptual Argument Resourcebased view: model that argues that rare inimitable resources help firms maintain competitive advantage Organizational resources: financial, physical, virtual, PEOPLE (good people are rare) Inimitable: incapable of being imitated or copied 3 reasons people are inimitable: o History: collective pool of experience, wisdom, knowledge o Numerous small decisions: small every day decisions o Socially complex decisions: resources created by people (culture, teamwork, trust, reputation) Research Evidence Surveying executive; assessed high performance work practices
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