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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Angela White

Chapter 7- Groups & Teamwork What is a group? - Group: Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. o Important for two reasons; they exert a tremendous influence on us. (Acquiring beliefs and values) and they allow us to exert influence on others. - Formal Group: Established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. o Channel individual effort in an appropriate direction o Most common = Manager and Employee o Other types:  Task Forces: Temporary groups to achieve particular goals  Committees: Permanent Groups, handling recurrent assignments outside the usual work group structures. - Informal Group: Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organization members. o Not sanctioned by the organization. Can either help or hurt organization. Group Development - Typical Stages for Group Development. o Each stage has a series of challenges to mast in order to achieve the next stage o Norming  Group members orient themselves “testing the waters”  Situation is often ambiguous and members aware of their dependency on each other. o Storming  Conflict Emerges. Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether to go along with group.  Sorting out roles/ responsibilities.  Problems likely to happen earlier than in later stages o Norming  Resolve issues/ Norms agreed to/ Group cohesion o Performing  Energy devoted to task accomplishment. Achievement, creativity and mutual assistance. o Adjourning  Rites and ritutals that affirm successful development(Parties)  Often exhibit emotional support for each other o Not All groups go through these stages, mainly groups that have never met - Punctuated equilibrium model: A model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions. o Phase 1: Begins with first meeting and continues to the midpoint of groups existence.  Crucial in setting the agenda  Precedents develop and dominate first half of the groups life  Gathers info & holds meeting; makes little progress towards the goal. o Midpoint Transition: Occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time toward their deadline.  Change in approach; need to move forward is apparent, may seek outside advice.  May consolidate previous info or mark a new approach. Crystallizes the activities for phase 2 o Phase 2: Ends with final meeting and reveals a bust of activity and concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product. - Advice the model offers; o Prepare carefully the first meeting- stress motivation & achievement o Do not look for radical progress in phase 1 o Manage midpoint transition carefully- recognize a change must occur o Resist deadline changes. Group Structure & Its Consequences - Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organizations of a group. The way its “Put Together” - Group Size o Large groups usually report less satisfaction. Different viewpoints promote conflict and dissension. Reduce time for verbal participation and inhibits people to indentify their effect on success. o Additive Tasks: Predict potential performance by adding the performances of indv members together.  Potential performance increases with size o Disjunctive Tasks: Potential performance depends on best member.  Potential performance increases with size o Process Losses: Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating large groups  Actual performance = Potential P – Process losses o Conjunctive Tasks: Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member.  Potential/actual performance decrease with group size. - Diversity o More diverse have more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive. Forming, norming and storming take longer. o “surface diversity” (age, gender) will wear off with time. o “Deep diversity” can badly damage cohesiveness - Group Norms o Norms: Collective expectations, that members of social units have regarding the behavior of each other.  Provide regularity and predictability.  Regulate behaviors important to their supporters.  Developed through indv attitudes as a function of a related belief or value. (Collectively held expectations)  Much compliance occurs because the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes.  Save time and prevent social confustion. o Typical norms  Dress norms: Clothing people wear to work  Reward allocation norms  Equity, Equality, Reciprocity, Social responsibility.  Performance norms - Roles o Roles: Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviors attached to them.  Designated/ Assigned = President  Emergent = Class Clown o Role Ambiguity: Lack of clarity of job goals or methods.  Organizational factors lead to role sender to develop role expectations and “send” role to focal people. The focal people receive the roles and the tries to fulfill it. o Role Conflict: A condition of being faced with incompatible role expectations  Intrasender role conflict: A single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant.  Intersender role conflict: Two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations.  Interrole Conflict: Several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations.  Person-role conflict: Role demands call for behavior that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant. - Status o Status: The rank, social position or prestige accorded to group members.  Formal statuses, managers publicly identify people’s higher status.  Titles, relationships, pay, schedules  Based on seniority or JOB o Induces people to aspire to higher positions.  Informal Statuses, Not well advertised.  “Fast trackers” “Model Father”  Has paradoxical affect, people like to communicate with others at their status or higher.  Stalls communication and is mainly done by those with
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