CHAPTER NOTES MOS 2181 Chapter 7.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

CHAPTER NOTES Group: 2 or more individuals interacting interdependently for a purpose but not a common goal; not co-dependent ­ Doesn’t need to be face-to-face or verbal ­ They are important because they 1. Exert tremendous influence on us (acquire believe, values, attitudes and behaviours) 2. They provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others Team: A group whose collective effort is greater than individual input working towards a common goal (a selfless mindset) Defining and Classifying Groups ­ Formal (feas group) and Informal (OB class) ***know the differences ­ Formal: groups that are establish by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizations goals o i.e. manager and the employees who report to the manager – the hierarchy of an org is a group o task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems o Committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group ­ Informal: Groups the emerge naturally in response to the common interest of organizations members People want to belong Group Development Stages 1. Forming – “testing the waters”, what are we doing here? What are others like? Purpose? o Very ambiguous and members are aware of dependency on each other 2. Storming – conflict emerges  confrontation and criticism, sorting out roles/responsibilities are issue here o Problems more likely to happen earlier rather than later 3. Norming – resolve issues and develop social consensus  COMPROMISE IS NECESSARY o Interdependence is recognized, group becomes more cohesive, info/opinions flow freely 4. Performing – group devotes energies to achieving their goals o Achievement, creativity, mutual assistance are prominent themes here 5. Adjourning – some groups had life spans and disperse after achieving goals o Some disperse when corporate layoffs or downsizing occurs o Ceremonies, parties, emotional support for each other ­ Groups do not develop in a universal sequence (seen above); the addition of one person can change the dynamics of that team o The stages are just a theoretical model (equilibrium) ­ The time of when groups form and change (the way they work) is consistent Groups can get stuck at certain stages; can’t quite get all the way Punctuated Equilibrium ­ Punctuated Equilibrium Model: A model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions ­ Phase 1: about half the groups existence, little visible progress towards goals, setting the agenda Midpoint Transition: halfway, need to move forward is apparent, group may see advice, may consolidate previous approach or they may take a completely different approach, it crystallizes groups activites Phase 2: for better or worse decisions and approaches adopted at midpoint play out EMB #1 Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Research on group development  Not all groups develop in same sequence Groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions They may exhibit some of the stages noted earlier with a new cycle of storming following midpoint (Page 220) Group Structure and Its Consequences ­ The characteristics of the stable social organization of a group – they way the group is put together ­ Group Size – smallest 2  largest 300-400  mostly 3-20 o Larger group = less satisfaction o More people = more chance for friends, more conflict, verbal participation time decreases, members identify less easily with success o Additive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members  i.e. building a house  you can estimate potential speed by adding the efforts of carpenters  potential performance increases with group size o Disjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member  Potential performance increases with group size because the probability that the group includes a superior performer is greater with a larger group o Process Losses: group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups  Even with good intentions, problems of communication and decision making increase with size ACTUAL PERFORMANCE = POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE – PROCESS LOSSES o Conjunctive Tasks: Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member  Bottlenecks in assembly line  Potential and Actual performance decrease with the increase of group size in conjunctive tasks  Performance on purely conjunctive tasks should decrease as group size increases ­ Diversity of Group Membership o More diverse groups have a harder time communicating and becoming cohesive, they tend to take longer during forming storming and norming stages, they carry more ideas and are more creative o Negative effects of “surface diversity” in age, gender, and race ware off after time o “deep diversity” can be damaging ­ Group Norms o Norms: collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other o Normative influence is usually unconscious o They develop to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour. o Attitudes form the basis for norms – norms are collectively held behaviors depending on 2+ people o Individuals comply with norms that go against their privately held attitudes and opinions  Getting married in a church when you’re not religious, wearing neck ties to work o Dress Norms: work attire, military, casual dress policies o Reward allocation Norms:  Equity: reward according to input, effort, performance, seniority  Equality: reward everyone equally  Reciprocity: reward people when they reward you  Social responsibility: reward those who need the reward o Performance Norms: breaks, being absent etc/. ­ Roles: o Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviors attached to them o Roles represent “packages” of norms that apply to particular group members  Ex. Not everyone is required to act as a secretary o Assigned Roles: formally prescribed, dividing labour/responsibilities o Emergent Roles: develop naturally to meet social-emotional needs  Class clown, office gossip o Role Ambiguity: lack of clarity of job goals or methods  Organizational factors: middle managers failing to provide big picture  The role sender: unclear expectations for focal person  The focal person : focal person may not fully understand even if it’s clearly sent o Role Conflict: a condition of being faces with incompatible role expectations o Intrasender Role Conflict: a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant  Manager says take it easy relax, then assigns you another task o InterSender Role Conflict: two or more role senders provide role occupant with incompatible expectations  Balancing organization and its clients or customers o Interrole Conflict: Several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations  One person may be marketing expert, head of research group and subordinate to VP… balance causes conflict here o Person-Role Conflict: role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant  Whistle-blowing ­ Status o The rank, social position, or prestige according to group members  Groups evaluation of a member o Formal Status Systems: publically identifying those people that have higher status  Titles, particula
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