CHAPTER NOTES MOS 2181 Chapter 8.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

CHAPTER NOTES Social Influence in Organization ­ Groups exert influence over the attitudes and behaviour of their individual members o As a result people often act differently within a group as they would independently ­ Information Dependence o Reliance on others for info about how to think/feel/act o Individuals are movtivated to compare their thoughts and feelings with others to acquire information ­ Effect Dependence o Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide reward and punishment o Involved two complementary processes 1. Group frequently has vested interest in how individual members think and act 2. The member frequently desires approval of the group Social Influence in Action ­ The most obvious concequence of information and effect dependence is the tendency for groups to conform to the social norms est. by the group ­ Motives for Social Conformity o Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment  criminal convicts o Simplest most direct motive for conformity  Primarily involved EFFECT DEPENDENCE o It occurs because members wish to acquire rewards from the group and avoid punishment o Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself o If someone is similar to you, you will be motivated to rely on them for info about how to think and act  information dependence (has both though)  child acting like parent o Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm o “seen as right”  due to internal rather than external forces  Religion ­ The Subtle Power Of Comliance o A compliant individual is doing something that is CONTRARY to what they think or feel o Its highly dissonant an brings up tension in the individual Organizational Socialization ­ The process of how simple compliance can set the stage for more complete identification and involvement with organizational norms and roles ­ Socialization: the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization o Primary mean of orgs. Communicating the orgs culture and values to new members o New comers need to learn… o Knowledge and skills to perform their tasks o Learn appropriate behaviours accepted for their ROLES o Learn norms and values of their WORK GROUP o Learn about the organization  history, traditions, language, politics, mission, culture ­ Person-Job fit: the match between an employees knowledge, skills and abilities & the requirements of the job ­ Person-Organization: the match between an employees personal values and the values of the org. ­ Organizational Identification: the extent to which an individual defines themselves in terms of the org. and what it is perceived to represent. ­ SUMMARY: socialization is important because it has a DIRECT effect on proximal socialization outcomes (P-J, O-J fit), which lead to more distal outcomes (org. identification) o Its most potent during transitions (promotions, new members, new assignments, new groups) ­ Stages of Socialization o Anticipatory Socialization: before you join org  Formal: skills acquired in university  Informal: skills acquired through series of summer jobs, or watching the portrayal of orgs on tv or movies o Encounter: new recruit joins org  Formal: oreientation, rotation though various parts of org  Informal: getting to know personalities of bosses & co-workers o Current employees and org are looking for conformity on the new recruits part o New recruit is interested in having their needs and expectations fulfilled o Role Management: fine tuning and actively managing their role in the organization ­ Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract o Unrealistic Expectations: people entering orgs have expectations that are not accurate or realistic therefore they are shocked and expectations are not met o Newcomers with higher expectations have higher job satisfaction o Unrealistic expectations due to stereotypes from the media and teachers and overzealous recruiters o Psychological Contrast: beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and the organization o i.e. receive bonuses for hard work and loyalty o Psychological Contract Breach: employee perceptions that their organization has failed to fulfill one or more promises or obligations of the psychological contract • 55% of MBA graduates said some aspect of their psychological contract was broken • Results: feelings of anger/betrayal low job satisfaction, org. commitment, higher turnover, low job performance, • Many of the terms of the psychological contract are est. in Anticipatory socialization Methods of Organizational Socialization ­ A fair degree of anticipatory may exist before a person joins an org. (MBA student going to business school) ­ Organizations differ in terms of WHO does the socializing, HOW its done and HOW MUCH is done ­ Realistic Job Previews: the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants o The inability for new employees to survive the discrepancy between expectations and reality represents a failure of socialization on the organizations part o Orgs can provide “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory socialization stage o Some realistic previews include job sampling  OPP recruitment camps o Research Evidence o Realistic job previews reducr inflated expectations, turnover & job improvement o Turnover decreases because of reduced expectations and increased job satisfaction • Also because those who are not fit for the job or have low P-J/P-O fit withdraw (a process known as SELF SELCTION) ­ Employee Orientation Programs: programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with and the organization o Health and safety issues, terms/conditions/info on org  history & traditions o Begin conveying and forming psychological contract o ROPES  orientation program to help new employees deal with stress o Research Evidence o Orientation programs have an immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on job attitudes and behaviors o People that go through orientation programs are more socialized in the org. ­ Socialization Tactics : the manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another o Collective vs. Individual Tactics o Collective: # of new members socialized in group facing the same experiences/challenges • Frat pledge classes, army boot camps, flight attendants, sales people o Individual: tailor-made for each new member • On-the job training/apprenticeship to develop skilled cratspeople o Formal vs. Informal Tactics o Formal: segregating new comers from regular org. members and providing them with formal learning experiences during stages of socialization o Informal: do not distinguish a newcomer from more experiences members  rely on informal and on-the-job learning o Sequential vs. Random Tactics: is there a clear sequence of steps during socialization process? o Sequential: fixed sequence of steps leading to the assumption of the role o Random: ambiguous or challenging sequence o Fixed vs. Variable Tactics o Fixed: there is a timetable for the newcomer’s assumption of the role o Variable: no time frame to indicate when socialization process ends and assumes their role o Serial vs. Disjunctive Tactics o Serial: newcomers soci
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