CHAPTER NOTES MOS 2181 Chapter 10.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

Chapter Notes: What is Communication? ­ It’s the process by which information is exchanged between sender and receiver ­ Focus on Interpersonal communication in this chapter o Ex. One on one exchange between two individuals ­ Thinking, Encoding, Transmitting, Perceiving, Decoding, Understanding ­ Effective Communication: Communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner Organizational Communication ­ It could stick to a strict chain of command, under this 3 necessary forms of communication can be accomplished 1. Downward Communication: information that flows from top to bottom 2. Upward Communication: information that flows from bottom to top 3. Horizontal Communication: information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort. Deficiencies in the Chain of Command ­ Informal communication o Chain of command fails to consider informal communication o Informal grapevine may spread unsavory, inaccurate rumors across org. ­ Filtering o Tendency for a message to be watered down or stop during transmission o Upward filtering: employees worried their bosses will use info against them o Downward filtering: due to time pressures or simple lack of attention to detail o The potential for filtering increases with the number of links in the communication chain o Some managers establish an open door policy • The opportunity for employees to communicate directly with manager without going through the chain of command • This should decrease upward filtering o To prevent downward filtering… • Organizations attempt to communicate directly with potential receivers, bypassing the chain of command ­ Slowness o Transmitting info can be painfully slow, more with horizontal communication o Not a good mechanism for reacting quickly to customer problems o Cross-functional teams an employee empowerment are used to improve communications in these areas by short-circuiting the chain of command Manager-Employee Communication ­ Researchers show that managers and employees differ in their perception of: o How employees should and do allocate time o How long it takes to learn a job o The importance of employees attached to pay o The amount of authority the employee has o The employee’s skills and abilities o The employees performance and obstacles to good performance o The managers leadership style ­ These differences suggest a lack of openness in communication ­ Barriers to effective Manager-Employee Communication o Conflicting Role Demands: difficultly with balancing social-emotional and task functions o Mum Effect: The tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others o Mum effect is more likely when the sender is responsible for the news o The Rumor Mill at UofG was implemented to counter the tendency toward mum effect The Grapevine ­ It’s the informal communication network that exists in ANY organization ­ It can be word-of-mouth, notes, emails, fax, etc ­ They can be loosely coordinated (i.e. office grapevine and warehouse grapevine) ­ It can transmit info relevant to orgs. Performance or just simple gossip o You won’t believe who got fired! ­ 75% of non-controversial org-related info is correct ­ PERSONAL and EMOTIONALLY CHARGED info is usually incorrect ­ Personality characteristics play a role in who participates in the grapevine o Extraverts might be more likely to pass on the info o Similarly, those with low self-esteem may pass info on for personal advantage o Physical location; warm control room in cold plant, mail carriers, IT troubleshooters ­ Pros and Cons o In some orgs. The grapevine is a regular substitute for formal communication o Managers have been known to “leak” ideas into the grapevine to get feedback o It can be a problem with RUMOURS: an unverified belief that is in general circulation o Although it’s possible for a rumour to be true it may not remain true Verbal Language of Work ­ Jargon: Specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or orgs o Ex. OB can mean Organizational Behaviour to managers or Obstetrics to a physicians ­ Barriers: o Inside ORG: New org. members may find it intimidating or confusing, communication between department o Outside Org: ie. Language of corporate takeover Non-Verbal Language of Work ­ The transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing ­ Body language: non-verbal communication by means of a sender’s bodily motions, facial expressions or physical location o Senders who feel themselves to be of high status than the receiver act more relaxed o Showing our true feelings, editing our feelings or actively deceiving others o Some are good at pretending they are relaxed when they are not ­ Props, Artifacts and Costumes o Office Décor and Arrangement o Professors office: tidy, decorated and desk against wall not in between them. o Clothing o Signals about competence, seriousness and promotablility o Women looking more masculine Gender differences in Communication ­ Girls see conversation as a way of developing relationships and networks of connection/intimacy ­ Boys see conversation as a way of achieving states within groups and to maintain independence ­ Men are more sensitive to power dynamics and will use communication to postion themselves (one-up themselves) ­ Women are concerned with rapport building and communicate in ways to not put people down ­ KEY DIFFERENCES: 1. Getting Credit  MEN blow their own horn MORE 2. Confidence and boasting MEN tend to be more boastful, therefore come off more confident women tone it down 3. Asking Questions WOMEN ask more 4. Apologies MORE WOMEN, men see ritual apologies as weakness 5. Feedback  men more blunt, women will buffer more 6. Compliments  WOMEN more likely to compliment, men more likely to critique 7. Ritual opposition men challenge others points of view while women find it attacking 8. Managing up & down men talk to their superiors about achievements, women down-play therefore they are perceived that they can’t project their own authority 9. Indirectness women tend to be INDIRECT with giving orders which may lead to misunderstandings Cross-Cultural Communication ­ Language differences: speaking the same language is no guarantee of perfect communication ­ Non-Verbal Communication: o Facial Expression: generally standard o Gestures: Thumbs up, okay sign, shaking head mean different things in different cultures o Gaze: Latin Americans and Arabs favour gaze, Europeans do not, avoiding eye contact in East Asia shows respect, in North America it often connotes disrespect o Touch: Latin Americans, Southern Europeans and Arabs stand close, North Americans and Northern Europeans keep their distance ­ Etiquette and Politeness o Literal decoding will almost always lead to trouble ­ Social Convections o Proper greetings vary across cultures as well as loudness (UK quieter, Middle East louder) o Punctuality: N.America and Japan punctuality is expects, L.America and Arab world not ­ Cultural Context o
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