Chapter 12-13 textbook notes.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

Chapter 12 Notes: Power Political and Ethics - Were once seen as irrational and evil in organizational behaviour Power: the capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence - Not always perceived or excised The Bases of Individual Power: - Power can be found in the POSITION that you occupy in the org. or the RESOURCES that you are able to command Legitimate Power: power derived from a person’s position or job in an organization - Differences of levels of legitimate power emphasized differently from org. to org.  military vs. universities Reward Power: Power derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative ones - - backs up legitimate power  recommend a raise, performance evaluations, assign preferred tasks - Any member can attempt to exert influence over others with praise, compliments and flattery which constitute as rewards Coercive Power: Power derived from the use of punishment and threat - Support for legitimate power  Dock pay, assign unfavourable tasks or block promotions - Generally ineffective and can promote employee resistance Referent Power: Power derived from being well liked by others - Role models - Represents a truer or deeper base of power than reward or coercion - Charismatic leaders have referent power Expert Power: Power derived from having special info or expertise that is values by an organization - The more crucial and unusual this expertise, the greater is the expert power available - Corresponds with difficulty of replacement - Employees perceive women managers as more likely than male managers to be high in expert power How Do People Obtain Power? Doing the Right Things: ACCORDING TO KATNER some activities are “righter” than others for obtaining power - Extraordinary Activities: excellent performance in UNUSUAL or NON-ROUTINE activities o New positions, managing substantial changes taking greater risks - Visible Activities: people who have an interest in power are great at identifying visible activities & publicizing them o Innovative surgeon who’s techniques are reported in a Journal will enhance his influence in hospital - Relevant Activities: if nobody sees the work as relevant to the solution it will not add to one’s influence Cultivating the Right People:  ITS NOT WHAT YOU KNOW ITS WHO YOU KNOW - Outsiders: o Est. good relationships with people outside the org.  Org. members That are on the BoD of other companies may acquire info about business conditions they can use at their own firm - Subordinates: “I taught her everything she knows” o Professors better known for the brilliant PH.D. students they have supervised - Peers: good relationship with peers ensures nothing gets in the way of one’s future acquisition of power o Favours can be asked of former associated - Superiors: Liaisons with key supervisors probably represents the ebst way of obtaining power through cultivating others  usually mentors or sponsors Empowerment – Putting Power Where It Is Needed Empowerment: giving people the authority, opportunity and motivation to take initiative & solve org problems - Having opportunity usually means freedom from bureaucratic barriers and other system problems - Motivation part suggests hiring people who will be intrinsically motivated by power and opportunity and aligning extrinsic rewards with successful performance - Leaders who express confidence in subordinates’ abilities can contribute to empowerment  ESP transformational leaders - People who are empowered have a strong sense of SELF-EFFICACY  feeling that they are capable of doing their jobs well and “making things happen” - Empowerment fosters job satisfaction and higher performance Influence Tactics – Putting Power to Work Influence tactics: tactics that are used to convert power into actual influence over others - Assertiveness  ordering, nagging, setting deadlines and verbally confronting - Ingratiation  using flattery and acting friendly, polite or humble - Rationality  using logic, reason, planning and compromise - Exchange  doing favours or offering to trade favours - Upward Appeal  making formal or informal appeals to organizational superiors for intervention - Coalition Formation  seeking united support from other organizational members - Your BASES OF POWER determines what tactics you use o Coercive power  assertiveness o Referent power  ingratiation o Expert power  rationality (people try to use rationality frequently) - Also dependent on who you are trying to influence o Subordinates  recipients of assertiveness o Superiors  rationality o Peers and subordinates  exchange, ingratiation and upward appeal - What’s the best? o Rationality for MEN = better performance evaluations, more money and experience less stress o Ingratiation foe WOMEN Who Wants Power N Pow  need to have strong influence over others  a reliable personality characteristic some people have more n Pow than others (equal between men and women) - People who are high in n Pow in its “pure” form conform to the negative stereotype o Rude, sexually exploitative, abuse alcohol and show a great concern with status symbols - When is controlled and responsible  most effective managers … o Have high n Pow o Use their power to achieve org. goals o Adopt a participative or coaching leadership style o Are relatively unconcerned with how much others like them o THERES ARE CALLED INSTITUTIONAL MANAGERS o They are more effective than PERSONAL POWER MANAGERS and AFFILIATIVE MANAGERS (more concerned with being liked than with exercising power) Controlling Strategic Contingencies – How Subunits Obtain Power Subunit Power: the degree of power held by various organizational subunits, such as departments Strategic Contingencies: critical factors affecting organizational effectiveness that are controlled by a key subunit - The work other subunits perform is contingent on the activities and performance of a key subunit - If subunits are dependent on others for smooth operations (or their very existence) they are susceptible to influence Conditions under which Subunits can control strategic contingencies: - Scarcity  differences in subunit power become magnified if resources become scarce o Subunits tend to acquire power when they are able to SECURE scarce resources that are important to the whole organization - Uncertainty  subunits more capable of coping with uncertainty will tend to acquire power o Promotes confusion, which permits CHANGES in power priorities as the org. environment changes - Centrality  other things being equal, subunits whose activities are most central to the work flow of the organization should acquire more power than those whose activities are more peripheral o Can be central in at least 3 senses 1. Influence the work of more other subunits  finance/accounting department approve expenses/payments 2. When subunit has crucial impact on quantity/quality of org product/service 3. More central when their impact is immediate - Substitutability  the less substitutable a subunit the more power o If work can be contracted out the power of the subunit decreases Organizational Politics – Using and Abusing Power The Basics of Organizational Politics: - Organizational Politics: The pursuit of self-interest in an organization, whether or not this self-interest corresponds to organizational goals o Political activity is self-conscious and intentional o Can be either individual activity or subunit activity o Its possible for political activity to have beneficial outcomes for the organization I. Sanctioned Means/Sanctioned Ends  Power is used routinely to pursue agreed-on goals  Managers agrees to recommend a raise to an employee if she increases net sales by 20% II. Sanction Means/Non-Sanctioned Ends  Acceptable means of influence abused to pursue goals that the org. does not approve of  Nurse agrees to give sub-nurse favourable job if she doesn’t rate out superior for stealing III. Not-Sanctioned Means/Sanctioned Ends  Ends useful to org are pursued in questionable ways  Bribery and vote-buying IV. Not-Sanctioned Means/Not-Sanctioned Ends  Disapproved tactics used to pursue disapproved outcomes o Most political maneuvering occurs at middle and upper management o Clear goals and routine tasks might provoke less political activity o Some issues are more likely to stimulate political activity than others  Budget allocation, reorganization, personal changes  Performance standards and purchasing equipment are NOT political o Scarce resources, uncertainty and important issues provoke political behaviour o Highly political environments result in lowered job satisfaction, lowered feelings of organizational support and increased turnover i
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