MOS 2181 Chaper 7 Lecture and Textbook Notes.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

MOS 2181 – Week 6 LECTURE NOTES CEO Wages, recession proof (CEO’s still get paid too much) Pay for performance? Chapters 7 Not sociology; psychology Not all groups are teams Formal and informal groups Covered so far: How people behave and why; psychology based Questions for Consideration Foundations of Group Behaviour: What are the stages of group development? What makes groups work (or not)? How do we build a better work group? Patrick Lencioni: The 5 Dysfunctions of a Team (2002, 2006) Overcoming 5 Dysfunctions – 2005 Lack of Trust Not comfortable being open and honest Fear of Conflict Should be comfortable to engage in conflict Lack of Commitment to a decision (no buy-in; buy-in to the team) Because they haven’t weighed into a topic they won’t buy into it Unwilling to hold each other accountable Peer-to-peer relationships would hold each other accountable Inattention to results (focus shifts towards individual concerns) Not focusing on collective results; focusing on their own agendas Book written for executives; now used by not-for-profits, schools, etc. Stopping office politics/backstabbing: build trust Overcome intimidation by a new team: be comfortable with your vulnerabilities (trust) Trust is very important What makes groups/teams work or NOT NO to groups: dysfunctions that prevent high performing YES to groups: Performance can increase, job satisfaction can increase, communication can be better, perception improves collectively (Gestalt theory) Video: United airlines; enforcing how important teamwork is Using NASCAR to help them be efficient Lost time costs big money; just came out of bankruptcy Team-building; interaction on a less stressful platform so that when they do work together there is no intimidation Video 2: Team building: horses, random games Planning, organizing: team contribution Using food to build teams Building consensus; communication; goals; deadlines West Jet: games in recruit selection (play risk) What happens to individual behaviour when mixed into groups: The power of context & Social Influence Q: are we the sole determinants of our behaviour? Epidemic: going viral Contagion: huge impact Power of context: what really matter are the little things EBM #2: Zimbardo – Social influence over individual behaviour Behaviour during certain situations can become distorted causing gaps in what is normal for individual Look to each other for norms; create your own guidelines (if there is uncertainty on guidelines)  Reality can shift as external influences push hard against individual values Stanford prison experiment (1971 at Stanford University) Psych Dept. Professor Zimbardo 70 Applicants answered an advertisement paying 15$ to participate; picked 24 young males through interviews/screening process Picked “average’ people 2-week study cancelled on day 6; behaviour got too extreme 12randomly became guards 12randomly assigned prisoners No roles given; just a title Guards became authoritarian; prisoners became deviant Physical and mental abuse; signs of mental health disorders Google it; watch it One woman said you must stop this; he married her Does the situation outside of you come to control your behaviour? Or do your own values allow you to rise above a negative environment? Americans torturing in Iraq: Why do people take abuse? People feel like they have no control over their circumstances What’s holding them back? (Stanford experiment…it’s the effect of the power of context) Personality changes when they get promoted? What could be considered external influencers to employees at work? Office design, policies, informal inclusion, attire, job titles, furniture Group Norms Provide an acceptable standard of behaviour; shared by all members of team: Performance Reward Appearance Social Arrangement Application of Resources *Creates culture to conform Conformity: Adjusting one’s behaviour or thinking to match those of other people or a group standard (Desire to fit, need to be accepted, maintain order during uncertain times) Unwillingness to be the odd man out; the deviant (leads to isolation) EMB #3: Sherif- Conformity Researcher When external surroundings lack stable reference points, individual who is caught in situation will feel uncertain Groups of individuals feeling uncertain mutually contribute to each other a mode of orderliness The group establishes their own orderly pattern; guidelines Collusion on how to proceed (Stanford) T/F All compliance is a type of conformity; but not all conformity is based on compliance (TRUE) Team Roles (Positions) Vary Task Oriented Role Maintenance Role (Can you explain more? I think what you said makes sense) Social Loafing Role Titles are an external factor; they affect behaviour EMB#4 Hackman - Designing Effective Work Teams (this helps our understanding of self-managed work teams) Work groups are effective when: Its physical or intellectual output is acceptable to management (consistent with organizational philosophy and culture) Group member’s needs are satisfied by being part of group The group experience enables members to continue to work together – it sustains itself. Perpetuating team mindset EMB #5 – Cross Functional Teams (page 39) Must have shared mental models to be effective (a real challenge in cross functional teams) 6 Factors that contribute to the effectiveness: 1. Composition 2. Superordinate goals 3. Physical proximity 4. Autonomy 5. Rules and Procedures 6. Leadership Leaders not always necessary; team members should be able to evaluate each other; Recognition is the most commonly used form of incentive to acknowledge (little things-Mary Kay; contagion that has big impact) HR Implications: Important to select organizational members that value team activity: Recruit, select Training Remember: A group is part of the larger system and therefore the organization’s strategy, authority structure Social Influence (External Factors), Socialization Processes (Internal Influences) & Organizational Culture (Ethos) Chapter 8 Philosophy/values all contribute to culture Page 252: A Story “Jayme’s Uncle” People act differently in groups than if they were independent operators Group members conform to social norms that have been established by the group Page 253: Roman Catholic priests different from Stanford prison Motives for conformity can differ System to classify types of conformity: Compliance: avoiding punishment, does not support the belief Relate to Stanford Prison: Subtle power of compliance: Uncle Todd complies for rewards; motivation External social variables influenced? Yes…Goth? Comply to avoid punishment Socialization: The process by which people learn the norms Methods: Realistic Job Previews, orientation, tactics, mentoring, proactive self-means EBM #1: Realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance (lowers cognitive dissonance) Reduced expectations lead to greater job satisfaction when they get the job People self-select themselves out of the applications because they can see that they don’t fit the job and/or the organization Divestiture Tactics: Strip away individuality EMB#2 Institutionalized vs. Individualized Socialization EMB#3 Mentorship Programs Build Relationships Subjective career outcomes: no real evidence but a belief that they will advance Objective career outcomes: Psychosocial & Career Function: CHAPTER NOTES Group: 2 or more individuals interacting interdependently for a purpose but not a common goal; not co- dependent ­ Doesn’t need to be face-to-face or verbal ­ They are important because they 1. Exert tremendous influence on us (acquire believe, values, attitudes and behaviours) 2. They provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others Team: A group whose collective effort is greater than individual input working towards a common goal (a selfless mindset) Defining and Classifying Groups ­ Formal (feas group) and Informal (OB class) ***know the differences ­ Formal: groups that are establish by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizations goals o i.e. manager and the employees who report to the manager – the hierarchy of an org is a group o task forces: temporary groups that meet to achieve particular goals or to solve particular problems o Committees: permanent groups that handle recurrent assignments outside the usual work group ­ Informal: Groups the emerge naturally in response to the common interest of organizations members People want to belong Group Development Stages 1. Forming – “testing the waters”, what are we doing here? What are others like? Purpose? o Very ambiguous and members are aware of dependency on each other 2. Storming – conflict emerges  confrontation and criticism, sorting out roles/responsibilities are issue here o Problems more likely to happen earlier rather than later 3. Norming – resolve issues and develop social consensus  COMPROMISE IS NECESSARY o Interdependence is recognized, group becomes more cohesive, info/opinions flow freely 4. Performing – group devotes energies to achieving their goals o Achievement, creativity, mutual assistance are prominent themes here 5. Adjourning – some groups had life spans and disperse after achieving goals o Some disperse when corporate layoffs or downsizing occurs o Ceremonies, parties, emotional support for each other ­ Groups do not develop in a universal sequence (seen above); the addition of one person can change the dynamics of that team o The stages are just a theoretical model (equilibrium) ­ The time of when groups form and change (the way they work) is consistent Groups can get stuck at certain stages; can’t quite get all the way Punctuated Equilibrium ­ Punctuated Equilibrium Model: A model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions ­ Phase 1: about half the groups existence, little visible progress towards goals, setting the agenda Midpoint Transition: halfway, need to move forward is apparent, group may see advice, may consolidate previous approach or they may take a completely different approach, it crystallizes groups activites Phase 2: for better or worse decisions and approaches adopted at midpoint play out EMB #1 Gersick’s Punctuated Equilibrium Research on group development  Not all groups develop in same sequence Groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions They may exhibit some of the stages noted earlier with a new cycle of storming following midpoint (Page 220) Group Structure and Its Consequences ­ The characteristics of the stable social organization of a group – they way the group is put together ­ Group Size – smallest 2  largest 300-400  mostly 3-20 o Larger group = less satisfaction o More people = more chance for friends, more conflict, verbal participation time decreases, members identify less easily with success o Additive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members  i.e. building a house  you can estimate potential speed by adding the efforts of carpenters  potential performance increases with group size o Disjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member  Potential performance increases with group size because the probability that the group includes a superior performer is greater with a larger group o Process Losses: group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups  Even with good intentions, problems of communication and decision making increase with size ACTUAL PERFORMANCE = POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE – P
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