MOS 2181 Chapter 8 Lecture and Textbook Notes.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

MOS 2181 – Week 7 Chapter 8 Sociology is now the focus; not so much psychology Values remain constant; behaviour changes Mentorship; Tactics in the SPE was to break then down; take away their individualism *Integrating chapters in cases for the written part of the final exam (EMB exercise from last week) Define Organizational Culture: ­ A system of shared values, beliefs, meaning and common perception held by members of an organization which distinguishes it from other organizations ­ Soul of organization, skeleton, flesh and blood, holds the whole thing together (Mintzberg); gives it life force (Professor at McGill) ­ DNA ­ Shared mental models; shared vision (some theorists believe) Socialization and social influence lead directly into the creation of the culture Recruitment and Selection predicated on the founding culture; shared beliefs Types of Culture (All organizations have culture) Strong: An organizational culture with intense and pervasive beliefs, values and assumptions (culture becomes the guiding force of behaviour; not management) Weak: An organizational culture that has yet to take hold either because it’s new or weak leadership has yet to influence formal variables (has yet to permeate throughout the people) Sub-cultures in certain departments can be the same or different than the organizational culture EMB #1 – Strong cultures 1. An organization need not be bi to have a strong culture 2. Strong cultures do not necessarily result in blind conformity (3M culture to non-conform) 3. Strong belief that strong cultures are associated with greater success and effectiveness: (1) Co- ordination (2) Conflict resolution (3) Financial Success (not complete evidence) -Wal-mart, strong corporate culture (Sam Walton’s corporate culture lives on after his death) (Door Greeter, Blue, Smiley face, consignment, cheer, Sam’s rules and picture, vest, buttons and slogans, name place over your heart, Can you see culture? Typically not written in a policy manual but just a strong of a factor. There will be evidence around the office in the form of artifacts that act as metaphors for the core values and beliefs of firm (unofficial dress code, addressing the boss, last coffee rule) Layers of Culture – Like an Iceberg SEEN: Material symbols, language, rituals and stories, artifacts that represent what is important NOT SEEN: Beliefs, values and assumptions of the organizational culture Google: Office perks Job satisfaction is very important to them Getting attention by doing something different; nurtures innovation HR department is called People Operations “A better boss, from top to bottom” -People analytics team produced a list of directives: good coach, empower, express interest in well-being of employees, results-oriented, etc. - Change at the top #1 Culture as a Potential Control system ­ Control system: the knowledge that someone who knows and cares is paying close attention to what we do and can tell us when deviations are occurring (Placebo effect) Letting the Culture Control under such circumstances ­ Vague and uncertain circumstances (corporate culture can be an unwritten way to approach such situations) ­ An informal culture can control behaviour (or new, weak culture) sometimes more than the formal control systems #2 Culture as Normative Order ­ Expectations and norms; what is NOT acceptable #3 Culture as promoting innovation (3M Canada) Why is culture important? Two primary reasons: ­ Assist a new strategic direction for the company ­ Culture to gain employee commitment *Psychological bond to the organization; strong loyalty, high trust, above and beyond *Fit with culture? Self select out How Culture is developed? Constructing Social Realties: Two research studies: ­ College students in the restroom ­ Seminary students studying the “good Samaritan” *Someone watching, expectations, power of context, social influence *Culture is the context; controlling part that sets up the constructs for social realities Common Mechanism for developing cultures: -Founding father/ mother - Participation through socialization (Exhibit 8.7) -Symbolic Management; buy-in to the culture, swallow yourself into it -Information from others via mentoring -Comprehensive reward system How Employees Learn Culture -Stories -Rituals -Material Symbols -Language -Mentorship Initiatives -Orientation Programs Can culture be dysfunctional? Enron, WorldCom, Nortel You can change culture (about 5 yrs) Structure, People, Purpose (hardest thing to change is people) Louis Gerstener Jr. IBM CEO *People are resistant to change Resistance Factors: Overcoming Resistance: What sorts of options are available to encourage people to embrace a new: way of thinking, acting behaving? Or a Set of objectives, goals, policies and/or values? ChangeEducation Difficult to change; handed down Culture is learned; through education (informal or formal) CHAPTER NOTES Social Influence in Organization ­ Groups exert influence over the attitudes and behaviour of their individual members o As a result people often act differently within a group as they would independently ­ Information Dependence o Reliance on others for info about how to think/feel/act o Individuals are motivated to compare their thoughts and feelings with others to acquire information ­ Effect Dependence o Reliance on others due to their capacity to provide reward and punishment o Involved two complementary processes 1. Group frequently has vested interest in how individual members think and act 2. The member frequently desires approval of the group Social Influence in Action ­ The most obvious consequence of information and effect dependence is the tendency for groups to conform to the social norms est. by the group ­ Motives for Social Conformity o Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment  criminal convicts o Simplest most direct motive for conformity  Primarily involved EFFECT DEPENDENCE o It occurs because members wish to acquire rewards from the group and avoid punishment o Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself o If someone is similar to you, you will be motivated to rely on them for info about how to think and act  information dependence (has both though)  child acting like parent o Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm o “seen as right”  due to internal rather than external forces  Religion ­ The Subtle Power Of Comliance o A compliant individual is doing something that is CONTRARY to what they think or feel o Its highly dissonant an brings up tension in the individual Organizational Socialization ­ The process of how simple compliance can set the stage for more complete identification and involvement with organizational norms and roles ­ Socialization: the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization o Primary mean of orgs. Communicating the orgs culture and values to new members o New comers need to learn… o Knowledge and skills to perform their tasks o Learn appropriate behaviours accepted for their ROLES o Learn norms and values of their WORK GROUP o Learn about the organization  history, traditions, language, politics, mission, culture ­ Person-Job fit: the match between an employees knowledge, skills and abilities & the requirements of the job ­ Person-Organization: the match between an employees personal values and the values of the org. ­ Organizational Identification: the extent to which an individual defines themselves in terms of the org. and what it is perceived to represent. ­ SUMMARY: socialization is important because it has a DIRECT effect on proximal socialization outcomes (P-J, O-J fit), which lead to more distal outcomes (org. identification) o Its most potent during transitions (promotions, new members, new assignments, new groups) ­ Stages of Socialization o Anticipatory Socialization: before you join org  Formal: skills acquired in university  Informal: skills acquired through series of summer jobs, or watching the portrayal of orgs on tv or movies o Encounter: new recruit joins org  Formal: oreientation, rotation though various parts of org  Informal: getting to know personalities of bosses & co-workers o Current employees and org are looking for conformity on the new recruits part o New recruit is interested in having their needs and expectations fulfilled o Role Management: fine tuning and actively managing their role in the organization ­ Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract o Unrealistic Expectations: people entering orgs have expectations that are not accurate or realistic therefore they are shocked and expectations are not met o Newcomers with higher expectations have higher job satisfaction o Unrealistic expectations due to stereotypes from the media and teachers and overzealous recruiters o Psychological Contrast: beliefs held by employees regarding the reciprocal obligations and promises between them and the organization o i.e. receive bonuses for hard work and loyalty o Psychological Contract Breach: employee perceptions that their organization has failed to fulfill one or more promises or obligations of the psychological contract • 55% of MBA graduates said some aspect of their psychological contract was broken • Results: feelings of anger/betrayal low job satisfaction, org. commitment, higher turnover, low job performance, • Many of the terms of the psychological contract are est. in Anticipatory socialization Methods of Organizational Socialization ­ A fair degree of anticipatory may exist before a person joins an org. (MBA student going to business school) ­ Organizations differ in terms of WHO does the socializing, HOW its done and HOW MUCH is done ­ Realistic Job Previews: the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants o The inability for new employees to survive the discrepancy between expectations and reality represents a failure of socialization on the organizations part o Orgs can provide “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory socialization stage o Some realistic previews include job sampling  OPP recruitment camps o
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