Midterm 2 Notes.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Jody Merritt

Chapter 7 Groups and Teamwork LO1: Define groups and distinguish between formal and informal groups Group: two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal • Interaction is the most basic aspect of a group o It suggests who is in the group and who is not • The interaction doesn’t need to be verbal or face-to-face • Interdependence simply means that group members rely to some degree on each other to accomplish goals • All groups have one or more goals • Group memberships are important for 2 reasons o Groups exert a tremendous influence on us; they are the social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours o Groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others Formal work groups: groups that are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals • Intentionally designed to channel individual effort in an appropriate direction • Most common formal group is a manager and employees that report to the manager • Other examples: task forces & project teams (temporary usually), committees (usually permanent) Informal groups: groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members o Seldom sanctioned by the organization, and their membership often cuts across formal groups o Can either help or hurt and organization, depending on their norms for behaviour LO2: Discuss group development Above: typical stages of group development • Leaders and trainers have observed that many groups develop through a series of stages over time • Each stage presents the members with a series of challenges they must master to achieve the next stage • Not all groups go through these stages, just many new groups 1. Forming: group members try to orient themselves by “testing the waters” • What are others like? • What are we doing here? • What is our purpose? • The situation is often ambiguous, and members are aware of their dependency on one another 1 2. Storming: conflict often emerges here • Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing • Sorting out roles and responsibilities is often at issue • Problems are more likely to happen earlier than later 3. Norming: members resolve the issues that provoked the storming, and develop a social consensus • Compromise often necessary • Interdependence is recognized, norms are agreed to, and the group becomes more cohesive • Information and opinions flow freely 4. Performing: with the social structure sorted out, the group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment • Achievement, creativity, and mutual assistance are prominent themes 5. Adjourning: rites and rituals that affirm the group’s previous successful development are common (such as ceremonies and parties) • Members often exhibit emotional support for each other • Good stage for monitoring and troubleshooting how groups are developing Punctuated Equilibrium: a model of group development that describes how groups are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions • Equilibrium means stability, and the research revealed apparent stretches of group stability punctuated by a critical first meeting, a midpoint change in group activity, and a rush to task completion • Punctuated equilibrium applies to groups with deadlines • Connie Gersick 1. Phase 1 • Begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the group’s existence • Very first meeting is critical in setting the agenda for what will happen in the remainder of this phase • The group makes little visible progress toward the goal • Midpoint transition o Occurs almost at the halfway point in time toward the group’s deadline o Marks a change in the group’s approach, and how the group manages the change is critical for the group to show progress o Group may seek outside advice o May consolidate previously acquired info or even mark a completely new approach, but it crystallizes the group’s activites for Phase 2 just as the first meeting did for Phase 1 2. Phase 2 • For better or worse, decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2 • Concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product 2 LO3: Explain how group size and member diversity influence what occurs in groups • The smallest possible groups contains two people • It is possible to engage in much theoretical nitpicking about just what constitutes an upper limit on group size • Most groups have between 3 and 20 members Size and Satisfaction • In theory, the more the merrier, • Members of larger groups rather consistently report less satisfaction with group membership than those who finds themselves in smaller groups • Opportunities for friendship increase, the chance to work on and develop these opportunities might decrease owing to the sheer time and energy required • Larger groups might prompt conflict and dissension, which work against member satisfaction • As group size increases, the time available for verbal participation by each member decreases • Many people are inhibited about participating in larger groups • Individual members on larger groups identify less easily with the success and accomplishments of the group Size and Performance • Some tasks are additive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members o Ex. Building a house o With additive tasks, the potential performance of the group increases with group size • Some tasks are disjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member o Ex.Aresearch team looking for a single error in a computer program o The performance of a team might hinge on its containing at least one bright, attentive, logical-minded individual o The potential performance of groups doing disjunctive tasks also increases with group size because the probability that the group includes a superior performance is greater • Potential performance: as groups performing tasks get bigger, they tend to suffer from process losses • Process losses: group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups • Actual performance = potential performance – process losses 3 • (a) Both potential performance and process losses increase with group size for additive and disjunctive tasks • (b) no effect shown here, which demonstrate that actual performance increases with a size up to a point and then falls off • (c) shows that the average performance of group members decreases as size gets bigger • Conjunctive tasks: tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member o Ex.An assembly line operation is limited by it’s weakest link o Both the potential and actual performance of conjunctive tasks would decreases as group size increases because the probability of including a weak link in the group goes up • For additive and disjunctive tasks, larger groups might perform better up to a point but at increasing costs to the efficiency of individual members • By any standard, performance on purely conjunctive tasks should decrease as group size increases Diversity of Group Members • Group diversity has a strong impact on interaction patterns—more diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating effectively and becoming cohesive • Diverse groups might tend to take longer to do their forming, storming, and Norming • More and less diverse groups can be equally cohesive and productive once they develop • In general, any negative effects of “surface diversity” in age, gender, or race are small or wear off over time • “Deep diversity” in attitudes toward work or how to accomplish a goal can badly damage cohesiveness • When management values and manages diversity, it offsets some of the initial process loss costs of diversity and capitalizes on its benefits for group performance LO4: Review how norms, roles, and status affect social interaction Group Norms 4 • Social norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other. They are codes of conduct that specify what individuals ought and ought not to do and standards against which we evaluate the appropriateness of behaviour • Much normative influence is unconscious, and we are often aware of such influence only in special circumstances • We become conscious of norms when we encounter ones that seem to conflict with each other or when we enter new social situations Norm Development • The most important function that norms serve is to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour • The consistency provides important psychological security and permits us to carry out our daily business with minimal disruption • Norms develop to regulate behaviours that are considered at least marginally important to their supporters • Individuals develop attitudes as a function of a related belief and value • In many cases, their attitudes affect their behaviour • When the members of a group share related beliefs and values, we can expect them to share consequent attitudes; and these shared attitudes form the basis for norms • Norms are collectively held expectations, depending on two or more people for their existence • Individuals comply with norms simply because the norm corresponds to privately held attitudes • In addition, even when norms support trivial social niceties, they often save time and prevent social confusion • Groups have an extraordinary range of rewards and punishments available to induce conformity to norms Some Typical Norms • There are some norms that seem to crop up in most organizations and affect the behaviour of members o Dress norms—dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work o Reward allocation norms—might dictate how rewards, such as pay, promotions, and informal favours could be allocated  Equity: reward according to inputs  Equality: reward everyone equally  Reciprocity: reward people the way they reward you  Social Responsibility: reward those who need it o Performance forms—the performance of organizational members might be as much a function of social expectations as it is of inherent ability, personal motivation, or technology Roles • Roles: positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them • Roles present “packages” of norms that apply to particular group members • The development of roles is indicative of the fact that group members might also be required to act differently from one another • In organizations, we find two different kinds of roles o Designated or assigned roles: formally prescribed by an organization as a means of dividing labour and responsibility to facilitate task achievement o Emergent roles: roles that develop naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or to assist in a formal job accomplishment Role Ambiguity • Role ambiguity exists when the goals of one’s job or the methods of performing it are unclear.Ambiguity might be characterized by confusion about how performance is evaluated, how good performance can be achieved, or what the limits of one’s authority and responsibility are 5 • Amodel of the role assumption process • ABOVE: you can see certain organizational factors lead role senders (such as managers) to develop role expectations and “send” roles to focal people (such as employees). The focal person receives the role and then tries to engage in behaviour to fulfill the role • Organizational factors o Some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their function in the organization. Ex. Middle management roles might fail to provide the “big picture” that upper management roles do • The role sender o Role senders might have unclear expectations of a focal person. Even when the sender has specific role expectations, they might be ineffectively sent to the focal person. Aweak orientation session, vague performance reviews, or inconsistent feedback and discipline may send ambiguous role messages to employees • The focal person o Even role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digested by the focal person. This is especially true when he or she is new to the role.Ambiguity tends to decrease as length of time in the job role increases • Practical consequences of role ambiguity? The most frequent outcomes appear to be job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, lowered performance, and intentions to quit o Managers can do much to reduce unnecessary role ambiguity by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback, especially for new employees and for those in more intrinsically ambiguous jobs Role Conflict • Role conflict: a condition of being faced with incompatible role expectations (mutually exclusive, cannot be fulfilled simultaneously, or do not suit the role occupant) • Intrasender role conflict: a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant. Example: a manager tells an employee to take it easy and not work so hard yet gives another batch of reports that require immediate attention • Intersender role conflict: two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. Employees who straddle the boundary between the organization and its clients or customers are especially likely to encounter this form of conflict. Example: the first-level manager, who serves as the interface between “management” and “the workers” • Interrole conflict: several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations. Example is a very busy person with many roles, and competing for her time are a frequent symptom of interrole conflict. • Person-role conflict: role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of a role occupant. Many examples of whistle-blowing are signals of person-role conflict • The most consistent consequences of role conflict are job dissatisfaction, stress reactions, lowered organizational commitment, and turnover intentions 6 • Managers can help prevent employee role conflict by avoiding self-contradictory messages, conferring with other role senders, being sensitive to multiple role demands, and fitting the right person to the right role Status: the rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members • It represents the group’s evaluation of a member • When a status works smoothly, the group will exhibit clear norms about who should be accorded higher or lower status • Formal status systems o Most obvious o Represents management’s attempt to publicly identify those people who have higher status than others o This identification is implemented by the application of status symbols that are tangible indicators of status  Status symbols may include titles, particular working relationships, pay packages, work schedules, and the physical working environment o Status and symbols connected to it serve as powerful magnets to induce members to aspire to higher organizational positions and also status differentiation reinforces the authority hierarchy in work groups and in the organization as a whole, since people pay attention to high-status individuals • Informal status systems o Such systems are not well advertised, and they might lack the conspicuous symbols and systematic support that people usually accord the formal system o Job performance is sometimes a basis for the acquisition of informal status o Informal status is linked to factors other than job performance, such as gender or race • Consequences of status differences o Paradoxical effect on communication patterns o Most people like to communicate with others at their own status or higher rather than with people who are below them o The result should be a tendency for communication to move up the status hierarchy o If status differences are large, people can be inhibited from communicating upward; much communicating gets stalled o Higher status members’do more talking and have more influence • Reducing status barriers o Foster a culture of teamwork and cooperation across the ranks o Example: “casual Fridays” o Many observers note that email has leveled status barriers LO5: Discuss the causes and consequences of group cohesiveness Group cohesiveness: the degree to which a group is attractive to its members. • Because of this attractiveness, members are especially desirous of staying in the group and tend to describe the group in favourable terms • Cohesiveness is relative, rather than absolute, property of groups 7 • • Factors influencing cohesiveness o Threat and Competition  External threat to the survival of the group increases cohesiveness in a wide variety of situations  Under extreme threat or very unbalanced competition, increased cohesiveness will serve little purpose o Success  Agroup becomes more attractive to its members when it has successfully accomplished some important goal  Cohesiveness will decrease after failure o Member Diversity  Diverse groups can have a harder time becoming cohesive than more homogenous groups  Its success of in performing the task will often outweigh surface dissimilarity in determining cohesiveness o Size  Bigger groups should have a more difficult time becoming and staying cohesive  In general, such groups should have a more difficult time agreeing on goals and more problems communicating and coordinating efforts to achieve those goals  Subgrouping is contrary to the cohesiveness of the larger group o Toughness of Initiation  Groups that are tough to get into should be more attractive than those that are easy to join o Consequences of Cohesiveness  More participation in group activities • Voluntary turnover should be low because members wish to remain in the group • Members like being with each other, so participation should be reflected in a high degree of communication  More conformity • Highly cohesive groups are in a superb position to induce conformity to group norms  More success • Cohesive groups are effective at goal accomplishment o One large-scale study of work groups reached the following conclusions 8  In highly cohesive groups, the productivity of individual group members tends to be fairly similar to that of other members. In less cohesive groups there is more variation in productivity  Highly cohesive groups tend to be more or less productive than less cohesive groups, depending on a number of variables o In good labour relations climate, group cohesiveness on interdependent tasks should contribute to high productivity LO6: Explain the dynamics of social loafing Social loafing: the tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task • The implication is that they would work harder alone rather than part of a group • Social loafing is a motivation problem • Social loafing has two different forms o Free rider effect: people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of their fellow group members o Sucker effect: people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding, that is, they are trying restore equity in the group • Some ways to counteract social loafing o Make individual performance more visible  Small group size  Post performance o Make sure that the work is interesting  Intrinsic motivation o Increase feelings of indispensability  Training and status system o Increase performance feedback o Reward group performance LO7: Discuss how to design and support self-managed teams What is a team? • They suggest that a group becomes a team when there exists a strong sense of shared commitment and when a synergy develops such that the group’s efforts are greater than the sum of its parts • The term “team” is usually used to describe “groups” in organizational settings • Collective efficacy: shared beliefs that a team can successfully perform a given task Designing effective work teams • Double-edged nature of group cohesiveness suggests that a delicate balance of factors dictates whether a work group is effective or ineffective • According to J. Richard Hackman, a work group is effective when o Its physical or intellectual output is acceptable to management and to the other parts of the organization that use this output o Group members’needs are satisfied rather than frustrated by the group o The group experience enables members to continue to work together o He also noted, group effectiveness occurs when high effort is directed toward the group’s task, when great knowledge and skill are directed toward the tasks, and when the group adopts sensible strategies for accomplishing its goals Self-Managed Work Teams 9 • Self-managed work teams: work groups that have the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision • These are groups that regulate much of their own members’behaviour • Tasks for self-managed teams o Should be complex and challenging o Should have the qualities of enriched jobs o Should use a variety of skills • Composition of self-managed teams o Stability o Size o Expertise o Diversity • One way of maintaining appropriate group composition might be to let the group choose its own members • However, the group may use some irrelevant criterion (such as race or gender) to unfairly exclude others • Supporting self-managed work teams o Anumber of support factors can assists self-managed work teams in becoming and staying effective  Training • Technical training • Social skills • Language skills • Business training  Rewards  Management ^^^ Factors affecting work group effectiveness^^^ LO8: Explain the logic behind cross-functional teams and describe how they operate effectively Cross functional teams: work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service • Might be self-managed and permanent if it is doing a recurrent tasks that is not too complex • The general goals of cross-functional teams include some combination of innovation, speed, and quality that comes from early coordination among the various specialties • Cross-functional teams used to make cars, sped up the process dramatically • Principles for effectiveness 10 o Composition: all relevant specialties are necessary, and effective teams are sure not to overlook anyone o Superordinate goals: attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration o Physical proximity: team members have to be located close to each other to facilitate informal contact o Autonomy: cross-functional teams need some autonomy from the larger organization, and functional specialists need some authority to commit their function to project decisions o Rules and procedures: although petty rules and procedures are to be avoided, some basic decision procedures must be laid down to prevent anarchy o Leadership: due to potential for conflict, c-f team leaders need especially strong people skills in addition to task expertise • Several of these principles ensure that teams share mental models • Shared mental models: team members share identical info about how they should interact and what their task is LO9: Understand virtual teams and what makes them effective Virtual teams: work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries • The primary feature of these teams is the lack of face-to-face contact between team members due to geographical dispersion • Often cross-functional • Technologies used by virtual teams can be either asynchronous (email, fax, or voicemail) allowing team members to reflect before responding, or synchronous (chat, groupware), allowing team members to communicate dynamically in real time • Advantages of virtual teams o Around-the-clock work o Reduced travel time and cost o Larger talent pool • Challenges of virtual teams o Trust o Miscommunication o Isolation/detachment o High costs o Management issues • Has been found that virtual teams engaged in a lower volume of information sharing but were in fact more likely to share unique information that was not known by other team members • Lessons concerning virtual teams o Recruitment  Choose team members carefully in terms of attitude and personality. Find people with good interpersonal skills, not just technical expertise o Training  Invest in training for both technical and interpersonal skills o Personalization  Encourage team members to get to know one another, either by encouraging informal communication using technology or by arranging face-to-face meetings whenever possible o Goals and ground rules 11  On the management side, virtual team leaders should define goals clearly, set rules for communication standards and responses, and provide feedback to keep members informed of progress and the big picture o Virtual teams must be real teams, if not by location, then in mind and spirit o Good planning and continuing support are necessary for the effective use of teams Chapter 8: Social Influence, Socialization, and Organizational Culture LO1: Understand the difference between information dependence and effect dependence Information dependence: reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act • The process which this occurs is explained by social information processing theory • Social information processing theory: information from others is used to interpret events and develop expectations about appropriate and acceptable attitudes and behaviours o Organizational members looks to others for info and cues on how they should behave • Individuals are dependent on the effects of their behaviour as determined by the rewards and punishments provided by others • Effect dependence: reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishments. o Usually involves two complementary processes  First, the group frequently has vested interest in how individual members think and act because such matters can affect the goal attainment of the group  Second, the members frequently desire the approval of the group LO2: Differentiate compliance, identification, and internalization as motives for social conformity Compliance: conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment • Primarily involves effect dependence • Although the complying individual adjusts his or her behaviour to the norm, he or she does not really subscribe to the beliefs, values and attitudes that underlie the norm Identification: conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself • Elements of effect dependence here, information dependence is especially important—if someone is basically similar to you, then you will be motivated to rely on that person for information on how to think and act Internalization: conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm • Occurs because it is seen as right, not because it achieves rewards, avoids punishment, or pleases others • Due to internal, rather than external forces LO3: Describe the socialization process and the stages of organizational socialization Socialization: the process by which people learn the attitudes, knowledge, and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization • Learning process in which new members must acquire new knowledge, change their attitudes, and perform new behaviours • The primary means by which organizations communicate their culture and values to new members • An important objective of organizational socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit • There are generally 2 kinds of fit that are important for socialization o (1) Person-job fit (PJ fit) 12  the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job o (2) Person-organization fit (PO fit)  the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of the organization • One of the primary goals of organizational socialization is to ensure that new employees learn and understand the key beliefs, values, and assumptions or an organization’s culture, and for individuals to define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent • Organizational identification: the extent to which individuals define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent • Socialization is important because it has a direct effect on proximal socialization outcomes (e.g. learning, PJ fit, PO fit) which lead to more positive distal outcomes (e.g. organizational identification) • Socialization is an ongoing process by virtue of continuous interaction with the others in the organization • Socialization is most potent during certain periods of membership transition, such as when one is promoted or assigned to a new work group or department, or especially when one joins a new organization • There are 3 stages of organizational socialization; one occurs before entry, another immediately after entry, and the last occurs after one has been a member for some period of time 1. Anticipatory socialization: can include a formal or informal process. Organizations vary in the extent to which they encourage anticipatory socialization in advance of entry. Not all anticipatory socialization is accurate an useful for the new member 2. Encounter: in this stage, the new recruit, armed with some expectations about organizational life, encounters day-to-day reality of life. Formal and informal aspects of this stage.At this stage, the organization and its experienced members are looking for an acceptable degree of conformity to organizational norms and the gradual acquisition of appropriate role behaviour. Recruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations fulfilled. If successful, the recruit will have complied with the critical organizational norms and should begin to identify with experienced organizational members 3. Role Management: The new member’s attention shifts to fine-tuning and actively managing his or her role in the organization. The new recruit might now be in a position to modify the role to better serve the organization LO4: Describe the implications of unrealistic expectations and the psychological contract for socialization • People seldom join organizations without expectations about what membership will be like and what they expect to receive in return for their efforts Unrealistic Expectations • Research indicates that people entering organizations hold many expectations that are inaccurate and often unrealistically high and as a result may experience a “reality shock” • Research has found that newcomers who have higher met expectations have higher job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job survival and lower intentions to leave • Occupational stereotypes, the media, or overzealous recruiters could be responsible for unrealistic expectations Psychological Contract • When people join organizations, they have beliefs and expectations about what they will receive from the organization in return for what they will give the organization • Such beliefs form what is known as the psychological contract • Psychological contract: beliefs held by employees regarding reciprocal obligations and promises between them and their organization • Psychological contract breach: employee perceptions that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more of its promises or obligations in the psychological contract 13 • PC breach is related to affective relations (higher feelings of contract violation and mistrust toward management), work attitudes (lower job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and higher turnover intentions), and work behaviours (lower organizational citizenship behaviour and job performance) • Employee perceptions of PC breach have also been found to be associated with a decreases in innovation- related behaviours and lower customer satisfaction • Recruiters are often tempted to promise more than their organization can provide to attract the best job applicants • Organizations need to ensure that truthful and accurate info is communicated to new members before and after they join an organization LO5: Describe the main methods of socialization and how newcomers can be proactive in their socialization • Realistic Job Previews: the provision of a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of a job to applicants o They provide “corrective action” to expectations at the anticipatory socialization stage o Generally organizations will obtain the views of experienced employees and HR staff about the +/- aspects of the job and incorporate these views into booklets or video presentations for applicants o Evidence shows that realistic job previews are effective in reducing inflated expectations and turnover and improving job performance o Also some evidence that organizations with realistic job previews are perceived by job applicants as more honest and trustworthy o Low-investment strategy that can reduce turnover and also help prevent perceptions of psychological contract breach • Employee Orientation Programs: programs designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people that they will be working with, and the organization o Main content is usually health and safety issues, terms and conditions of employment, and info about the organization o Teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations o Orientation programs designed to gelp newcomers cope with stress are called Realistic Orientation Program for Entry Stress (ROPES) o These have an immediate effect on learning and a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviours of new hires • Socialization Tactics: the manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of newcomers and individuals who are in transition from one role to another • o There are 6 socialization tactics that organizations can use to structure the early work experiences of new hires and individuals who are in transition from one role to another 14 o Institutionalized socialization consists of collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics o Individualized socialization consists of individual, informal, random, variable, disjunctive, and divestiture tactics o The main difference between these 2 approaches to socialization is that institutionalized socialization involves a more formalized and structured program of socialization that reduces uncertainty and encourages new hires to accept organizational norms and maintain the status quo o On the other hand, individualized socialization reflects a relative absence of structure that creates ambiguity and encourages new hires to question the status quo and develop their own approach to their role o The tactics that have also been distinguished in terms of the context in which information is presented to new hires, the content provided to new hires, and the social aspects of socialization o Collective-individual & formal-informal tactics = context of socialization o Sequential-random & fixed-variable tactics = content of socialization o Serial-disjunctive & investiture-divestiture tactics = social aspects of socialization o Institutionalized socialization tactics have been found to be related to proximal outcomes, such as lower role ambiguity and conflict and more positive perceptions of PJ and PO fit, as well as distal outcomes, such as more positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower stress and turnover 15 o Individualized socialization tactics result in a more custodial role orientation, in which new hires accept the status quo and the requirements of their tasks and roles o Divestiture socialization can result in ethical conflict at work • Mentoring: an experienced or more senior person in the organization gives a junior person guidance and special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist him or her during the early stages of his or her career • Mentoring is a type of developmental relationship that produces benefits for a protégé’s work and/or career • For mentors to be effective, they must perform two types of developmental functions: career and psychosocial functions o Career functions of mentoring  Amentor provides many career-enhancing benefits to an apprentice  These benefits are made possible by the senior person’s experience, status, knowledge of how to organization works, and influence with powerful people in the organization  Functions include • Sponsorship • Exposure and visibility • Coaching and feedback • Developmental assignments o Psychosocial functions of mentoring  Besides helping directly with career progress, mentors can provide certain psychosocial functions that are helpful in developing the apprentice’s self-confidence, sense of identity, and ability to cope with emotional traumas that can damage a person’s effectiveness  These include: • Role modeling • Providing acceptance and confirmation • Counseling o Mentoring is often informal o Formal mentoring programs: organizationally sponsored programs in which seasoned employees are recruited as mentors and matched with protégés • Women and mentoring o One factor that inhibits women’s career development compared with that of their male counterparts is the difficulty women have historically faced establishing an apprentice-mentor relationship with a senior person in the organization  Stems from the fact that the senior people who are in the best position to be mentors are frequently men, and men are also more likely to serve as mentors than are women  Often, a woman’s concerns are different from those her male mentor experienced at that stage in his career  The greatest difficulty is associated with fears that their relationship involves intimacy; causes uncomfortable situations o With many organizations providing formal mentoring programs, the barriers facing women in finding a mentor have now been removed o The negative effects associated with cross-gender dyads dissipates as the mentoring relationships develops over time o Research suggests that mentoring is even more critical to women’s career success than it is to men’s • Race, ethnicity and mentoring o Limited racial and ethnic diversity at higher levels of organizations constrain the mentoring opportunities available to younger minority group employees and provide less psychosocial support functions than is generally seen in same-race dyads 16 o Mentors tend to select apprentices who are similar to them in terms of race and nationality, as well as gender • Research evidence for mentoring o Mentored individuals had higher objective career outcomes, including greater satisfaction with one’s job and career and greater career commitment o Mentoring tends to be more strongly related to the subjective then to the objective career outcomes o Psychosocial function was found to be more strongly related to satisfaction with mentoring, where as the career function was more strongly related to compensation and advancement; yet both are just as important in generating positive attitudes toward one’s job and career o Developmental networks: groups of people who take an active interest in and actions toward advancing a protégé’s career by providing developmental assistance  Multiple developers from outside and inside  Can be from different hierarchal levels of the organization • Proactive Socialization: the process through which newcomers play the active role in their own socialization through the use of a number of proactive socialization behaviours o Two of the most important proactive behaviours are to request feedback about one’s work and job performance (feedback seeking) and to seek info about one’s work tasks, roles, work group and organization (information seeking) o Research has found that newcomers rely primarily on observation, followed by interpersonal resources (i.e. supervisors and co-workers) and they tend to seek out task-related information the most o Newcomers can also be proactive by participating in social events, developing friendships and relationships with co-workers or boss, getting to know people outside of one’s department and attempting to change or modify one’s tasks to improve PJ fit (job change negotiation) o It pays to be proactive! ^^ Proactive socialization behaviours^^ LO6: Define organizational culture and discuss the contributors to a culture Organizational Culture: the shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an organization • Determine the norms that develop and patterns of behaviour that emerge from these norms • Atrue “way of life” for organizational members • Internal or external matters • Can have a strong impact on both organizational performance and member satisfaction • Truly a social variable, reflecting yet another aspect of social influence • Subcultures: smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational culture that are based on differences in training, occupation, or department goals 17 The “Strong Culture” Concept: an organizational culture with intense and pervasive beliefs, values, and assumptions • Strongly supported by the majority of members, even cutting across any subcultures that might exist • In weak cultures, beliefs, values, and assumptions are less strongly ingrained in or less widely shared across the organization • Three points worth emphasizing about strong cultures o An organization need not be big to
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