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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

CHAPTER 4 VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND WORK BEHAVIOR Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Do not predict behavior in certain situations very well. Six categories of values: 1. Intellectual 2. Economic 3. Aesthetic 4. Social 5. Political 6. Religious Different occupational groups = different values. People choose occupations that correspond to their values. Work centrality: Work as a life interest. Hofstedes study: o Question 116 000 IBM employees in 40 countries about work-related values. o Discovered four dimensions along which work-related values differed across cultures: 1. Power distance a. The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is accepted by society members. 2. Uncertainty avoidance a. The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain and ambiguous situations. 3. Masculinity/femininity 4. Individualism/collectivism 5. Long-term/short-term orientation Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific object, situation, person, or category of people. Job satisfaction: A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs. o Facet satisfaction: Liking/disliking certain facets of the job. o Overall satisfaction: Overall indicator of a persons attitude to their job. Job Descriptive Index (JDI): Popular measure of job satisfaction. Questionnaire design around five facets of satisfaction. What determines job satisfaction? o Discrepancy theory: Job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained. o Fairness: Distributive fairness: Fairness that occurs when people receive what they think they deserve from their jobs. Equity theory: Job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the inputs invested in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or group. Procedural fairness: Fairness that occurs when the process used to determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable. Interactional fairness: Fairness that occurs when people feel they have received respectful and informative communication about an outcome. o Disposition o Mood and emotion Emotion: Intense, often short-lived feelings caused by a particular event. Moods: Less intense, longer-lived, and more diffuse feelings. Emotional contagion: Tendency for moods and emotions to spread between people or throughout a group. Emotional regulation: Requirement for people to conform to certain display rules in their job behavior in spite of their true mood or emotions. Key contributors to job satisfaction: o Mentally challenging work o Adequate compensation o Career opportunities o People Consequences of job satisfaction: o Absence from work, however, absence-satisfaction connection is not very strong. o Turnover, moderately strong connection. o Performance, connection is complicated due to other factors. Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Voluntary, informal behavior that contributes to organizational effectiveness. Forms of OCB: o Helping, being a good sport, courtesy and cooperation. Employee satisfaction customer satisfaction profits for the company. Organizational commitment: An attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between an employee and an organization. Three types: 1. Affective commitment: Commitment based on identification andinvolvement with an organization. Stay because they WANT to. Positively related to performance. 2. Continuance commitment: Commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization. Stay because they HAVE to. Negatively related to performance. 3. Normative commitment: Commitment based on ideology or a feeling of obligation to an organization. Stay because they SHOULD. Impact of changes in the workplace on employee commitment: o Changes in the nature of employees commitment to the organization o Changes in the focus of employees commitment o The multiplicity of employer-employee relationships within organizations CHAPTER 5 THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal. Intrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and the task; it is usually self-applied. Extrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is usually applied by others. Ex: profit sharing, employee stock ownership. Performanc
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