CHAPTER 4 VALUES, ATTITUDES, AND WORK BEHAVIOR
Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Do not predict
behavior in certain situations very well.
Six categories of values:
Different occupational groups = different values.
People choose occupations that correspond to their values.
Work centrality: Work as a life interest.
o Question 116 000 IBM employees in 40 countries about work-related values.
o Discovered four dimensions along which work-related values differed across
1. Power distance
a. The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is
accepted by society members.
2. Uncertainty avoidance
a. The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain
and ambiguous situations.
5. Long-term/short-term orientation
Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific
object, situation, person, or category of people.
Job satisfaction: A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs.
o Facet satisfaction: Liking/disliking certain facets of the job.
o Overall satisfaction: Overall indicator of a persons attitude to their job.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI): Popular measure of job satisfaction. Questionnaire design
around five facets of satisfaction.
What determines job satisfaction?
o Discrepancy theory: Job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the
job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained. o Fairness:
Distributive fairness: Fairness that occurs when people receive what
they think they deserve from their jobs.
Equity theory: Job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the
inputs invested in a job and the outcomes one receives in
comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or
Procedural fairness: Fairness that occurs when the process used to
determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable.
Interactional fairness: Fairness that occurs when people feel they have
received respectful and informative communication about an outcome.
o Mood and emotion
Emotion: Intense, often short-lived feelings caused by a particular
Moods: Less intense, longer-lived, and more diffuse feelings.
Emotional contagion: Tendency for moods and emotions to spread
between people or throughout a group.
Emotional regulation: Requirement for people to conform to certain
display rules in their job behavior in spite of their true mood or
Key contributors to job satisfaction:
o Mentally challenging work
o Adequate compensation
o Career opportunities
Consequences of job satisfaction:
o Absence from work, however, absence-satisfaction connection is not very
o Turnover, moderately strong connection.
o Performance, connection is complicated due to other factors.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Voluntary, informal behavior that
contributes to organizational effectiveness.
Forms of OCB:
o Helping, being a good sport, courtesy and cooperation.
Employee satisfaction customer satisfaction profits for the company.
Organizational commitment: An attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between
an employee and an organization.
1. Affective commitment: Commitment based on identification andinvolvement with an organization. Stay because they WANT to.
Positively related to performance.
2. Continuance commitment: Commitment based on the costs that would
be incurred in leaving an organization. Stay because they HAVE to.
Negatively related to performance.
3. Normative commitment: Commitment based on ideology or a feeling
of obligation to an organization. Stay because they SHOULD.
Impact of changes in the workplace on employee commitment:
o Changes in the nature of employees commitment to the organization
o Changes in the focus of employees commitment
o The multiplicity of employer-employee relationships within organizations
CHAPTER 5 THEORIES OF WORK MOTIVATION
Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.
Intrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the
worker and the task; it is usually self-applied.
Extrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the
task; it is usually applied by others. Ex: profit sharing, employee stock ownership.