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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Victoria Digby

CHAPTER 7 GROUPS AND TEAMWORK Group Development Group: Two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. Two reasons group memberships are important: 1. Groups exert a tremendous influence on us 2. Groups provide a context in which we are able to exert influence on others Formal work groups: Groups that organizations establish to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. Informal groups: Groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Stages of group development: 1. Forming 2. Storming (conflict often emerges) 3. Norming (members resolve issues that provoked the storming) 4. Performing (task accomplishment) 5. Adjourning Punctuated equilibrium model: A model of group development that describes how groups are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions. Upper limit of # of group members = 300-400, most groups have between 3-20. People are usually more satisfied in small groups vs. large groups. Group Structure and its Consequences Additive tasks: Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members. Performance of group increases with group size. Disjunctive tasks: Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the performance on the best group member. Performance of group increases with group size. Process losses: Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. Actual performance = potential performance process losses. Conjunctive tasks: Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. Performance of group decreases with group size. Norms: Collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behavior of each other. Why do norms develop? They serve to provide regularity and predictability to behavior. This consistency provides us with psychological security. Some typical norms: o Dress norms o Reward allocation norms Equity Equality Reciprocity Social responsibility o Performance norms Roles: Positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviors attached to them, like packages of norms that apply to specific people. Role conflict: A condition of being faced with incompatible role expectations. o Intrasender role conflict: A single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant. o Intersender role conflict: Two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. o Interrole conflict: Several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations. o Person-role conflict: Role demands call for behavior that is incompatible with the personality of skills of a role occupant. Status: The rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members. Group Cohesiveness Group cohesiveness: The degree to which a group is especially attractive to its members. Factors influencing cohesiveness: o Threats and competition o Success o Member diversity o Size o Toughness of initiation In highly cohesive groups, the productivity of individual group members tends to be fairly similar to that of other members. In less cohesive groups there is more variation in productivity. Highly cohesive groups tend to be more or less productive that less cohesive groups, depending on a number of variables. Social Loafing Social loafing: The tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. Implication: you would work harder alone instead of in a group. o Free rider effect: Lowering your effort to get a free ride off others. o Sucker effect: Lowering your effort because you feel like others are free riding. How to counteract social loafing: o Make individual performance more visible o Make sure that the work is interesting o Increase feelings of indispensability o Increase performance feedback o Reward group performance Designing Effective Work Teams Self-managed work teams: Work groups that have the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision. Composition of self-managed teams: o Stability o Size (smaller is better) o Expertise All members need social skills o Diversity Good teams = high cohesiveness, group norms. Supporting self-managed teams: o Training Technical training Social skills Language skills Business training o Rewards o Management Cross-functional teams: Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service. o Principles for effectiveness
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