Chapter 15 CB.pdf

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Angela White

Consumer Behaviour Chapter 15: Canadian Identity and Ethnic Subcultures • Canadian identity; a set of values, symbols and landscapes that Canadians regard as expressing our unique place among the world’s countries • Ethnic subcultures; a self perpetuating group of consumers who share common cultural or genetic ties that are recognized by both its members and others as a distinct category • Purchase decisions can be affected by the enormous variations in the social fabric of Canada • In Japan, ethnicity is synonymous with the dominant culture, because most citizens claim the same homogenous cultural ties o Canadian is a heterogeneous society • The best measure of ethnicity is language and the weak est measure is religion o Language is not a salient measure of particular cultures o Self-identification may be the best measure of various ethnicities in this situation Ethnicity and Marketing Strategies • Subucultural memberships so shape many needs and want s o Predictive of consumer variables like level and type of media exposure, food preferences, wearing of distinctive apparel, political behaviour, leisure activities and willingness to try new products • The way marketing messages should be structured depend s on subcultural differences in how people communicate • High-context culture; group members tend to be tightly knit and they infer meanings that go beyond the spoken word o Symbols and gestures carry the weight of the message versus the words • Low-context culture; much more literal • Targeting ethnic groups in two ways o 1. By fostering inclusiveness through putting more individuals from visible minorities into mainstream advertising o 2. By “speaking” to specific ethnic groups in their mother tongue • Ethnic media can act as a bridge as it blends the familiar and the new • Canadian marketers must be careful when segmenting markets by ethnicities o Can have greater purchase by those groups o Can lower recall from people outside those groups o Is becoming mainstream • De-ethnicitization; occurs when a product we formerly associated with a specific ethnic group detaches from its roots and appeals to other subcultures Ethnic Groups in Canada • There is potential for 200 plus niche markets in Canada • Generally concentrated geographically • Most dominant mother tongues besides Canada’s two official languages are: Chinese, Italian, German and Ukrainian o Two other dominant markets are Aboriginals and South -Asian Canadians • Aboriginals have their own media outlets, are responsive to ads that connect with their values • South-Asian Canadians mostly live in Toronto, in suburban areas as well as in suburban areas of Vancouver, vary in value systems, culture -based psychographics and factors that influence their consumer choice o Come to Canada with high income and education levels • Slumdog Millionaire brought Bollywood into the mainstream The Effect of Immigration on Canadian Diversity • 2/3 of Canada’s population growth between 2001 and 2006 was due to immigration • Australia is the only country more ethnically diverse than Canada o Toronto is the most diverse city in the world o Canadians view this as a good thing, higher than the world average • The local community is the primary source for information and advice o Emphasis on WOM Ethnicity is a Moving Target • Difficult to define distinct ethnic groups • Less European immigrants • Ethnic intermarriage has blurred ethnic boundaries o Creates opportunities for marketers who wish to meet the needs of children raised in multicultural families • Need to cater to diverse cultural traditions o Celebrations of arrival, settlement, trials and successes Ethnic Stereotypes • Must be careful how they portray ethnicities in advertisements • Attention must be paid when using ethnic symbolism as a shorthand to connote certain product attributes How Religion Influences Consumption • Religion is closely associated with ethnicity, social class and geographic regions • WASP values are a dominant force • Explosion of religion and spirituality in pop culture over the recent years • Churches are adopting a marketing orientation approach to fulfil peoples spiritual needs o Ex: Saturday services to provide flexibility o Number of adults who attend religious ceremonies is slipping • The little evidence that has been accumulated indicates that religious affiliation has the potentional to be a valuable predictor of consumer behaviour o Impact certain consumer variables • Religious themes frequently spill over into everyday consumption French Canadians (FC) • Account for about 16% of the Canadian population based on ethnic origin • Second-largest ethnic market in Canada o Mostly in Quebec and New Brunswick o Advantage of geographic concentrati on • Often speak French, must consider the linguistic implications Understanding the French -Canadian Identity • Three distinct traits of the FC consumer o 1. The sensate; speaks to the importance of all sense of FC consumers, as well as their appreciation of aesthetics, fashion consciousness and social hedonism o 2. Conservative; low risk taking, emphasis on family and strong brand loyalty of these consumers o 3. Non-price cognitive traits; accepting high price points, within reason, if a product or service meets the criteria of the first two traits • Bouchard model, six response keys are associated with the six historical and cultural roots of FC’s o Rural, minority, North American, Catholic, Latin and French o Six keys for the Latin roots are: joie de vivre, love of children, a need to be seen, artistic talent, sentimentality and instinctiveness • Still suggest that Quebec’s unique sensibilities still need to be considered whe n decisions are made market campaigns FC Consumption Patterns • Most information about their consumption patterns come from descriptive comparisons with English Canadians or segments within the FC market • Study found that life/excitement was the same acros s all three cultures o FC put more emphasis on being well respected and less on intellectual and cultural activities • Idolize local heroes FC and the Media • Have changed some of the symbols used in ads because they are seen as taboo o Ex: maple leaf • Creative execution design specifically for the FC market can have more impact than ads sim
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