Duplessis.SG.Chapter 20.doc

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2275A/B
Professor
Henry Meredith
Semester
Winter

Description
PAR6:EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS C HAPTER 20 T HE E MPLOYMENT R ELATIONSHIP Objectives After studying this chapter, you should have an understanding of: • the basic elements of the employment relationship • the ways in which the law affects recruitment practices • the content of a typical employment contract • the legal issues relating to the terms and conditions of employment Learning Outcomes • Understand why it is important to distinguish between an employee and an independent contractor (page 502) • Recognize that an employer is vicariously responsible for acts of the employees (page 504) • Recognize discrimination in the workplace (pages 405 – 507) • Understand when it is acceptable for an employer to discriminate and when the employer must accommodate for special needs (page 507-509) • Understand the power of the Human Rights Commission (page 506) • Recognize the duty placed on the employer through employment equity legislation (page 510) • Understand the basic contents of an employment contract (pages 514 – 515) • Understand the various pieces of legislation that protect workers, such as employment standards, health and safety, and pay equity (pages 515, 520) • Recognize the seriousness of a workplace harassment complaint (pages 518 – 519) • Recognize the differences in negotiating an employment contract in a unionized workplace (page 525) Chapter Summary The employment relationship is one of the most fundamental relationships in business. The cornerstone of this relationship is a contract, either individual or collective, whereby one party provides services to another through a contract is an “employee.” The distinction is crucial because common law, as well as statutory rights and obligations, in most cases applies only to employees and not to independent contractors. The hiring process has a number of phases – advertising, application submission, interviewing, and reference checking. Legal issues such as discrimination and employment equity apply to each of these steps and provide the opportunity for potential liability for the unwary employer. Most of the costly mistakes made by employers who end up the subject of a human rights investigation or the recipient of a wrongful dismissal suit can be avoided. Organizations need to be proactive by designing and implementing policies, practices, and procedures to address the legal issues Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. PART6:EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS at all stages of the employment relationship. A well-drafted employment contract sets out the terms and conditions of employment. It describes the employment relationship and, at a minimum, sets out the job to be performed and the remuneration to be provided. The employment contract can be advantageous for both the employer and the employee, as it contributes to certainty and clarity in the relationship. The ability to freely negotiate an employment contract has been somewhat curtailed by a host of legislation designed to protect employees. This protection is provided not only with respect to the terms of employment, such as wages, vacation, and hours of work, but also with respect to the conditions of employment. There is a vast array of legislation affecting employee welfare, discrimination in the workplace, and privacy. When a union is in place, negotiating and entering into an employment contract takes place through a process known as collective bargaining. The collective agreement that emerges from negotiations applies to all employees, regardless of whether they voted for union representation. Study Outline Use this outline to prepare a complete set of notes for this chapter. Employment Law – page 501 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ The Employment Relationship – page 502 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Employee v. Independent contractor__________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Implication of employment relationships______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Risks in Hiring – page 504 ______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Vicarious liability______________________________________________________ Negligent hiring_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ The Hiring Process – page 505 Human rights ___________________________________________________________ Human Rights Commission______________________________________________ Discrimination________________________________________________________ Prohibited grounds of discrimination____________________________________ Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTE20:THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP Adverse effects_____________________________________________________ Systemic discrimination______________________________________________ Defences to discrimination: BFOR_____________________________________ Duty to accommodate_______________________________________________ Penalties__________________________________________________________ Employment equity____________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Formation of the Employment Contract – page 511 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Offer of employment______________________________________________________ Inducing breach of contract______________________________________________ Restrictive covenants___________________________________________________ Fiduciary obligations___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ The Employment Contract – page 514 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Express terms____________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Implied terms____________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ Content of Contract_______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Terms and Conditions – page 514 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Employee Welfare Issues___________________________________________________ Employment standards _________________________________________________ Safety and compensation___________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Workers’ compensation scheme__________________________________________ Employee economic safety_________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Employment insurance__________________________________________________ Canada pension plan___________________________________________________ Workplace discrimination_______________________________________________ 66 PART6EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Workplace harassment_____________________________________________________ Pay equity ___________________________________________________________ Drug and alcohol testing________________________________________________ Workplace privacy________________________________________________________ Collecting and disseminating information __________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ Surveillance and searches_______________________________________________ Monitoring communications_____________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ The Union Context – page 525 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Certification__________________________________________________________ Labour Relations Board_________________________________________________ Collective bargaining___________________________________________________ Collective agreement___________________________________________________ SELF-ASSESSMENT Key Terms Briefly define each term in the space provided. Employment relationship – page 502 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Independent contractor – page 502 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Human Rights Commission – page 506 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Discrimination – page 507 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTE20:THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP _______________________________________________________________________ Adverse effects discrimination – page 507 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Systemic discrimination – page 507 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Bona fide occupational requirement (BFOR) – page 507 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Duty to accommodate – page 509 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Employment equity – page 510 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Fixed or definite term contract – page 514 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Indefinite term contract – page 514 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Employment standards legislation – page 515 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Pay equity – page 520 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 68 PAR6:EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS Certification – page 525 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Labour Relations Board – page 525 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Collective bargaining – page 525 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Collective agreement – page 525 _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Matching Match the correct letter of the most appropriate term in the space provided before each sentence. Please note that you will use only 10 of the terms so you must choose the best term available to match with its description. A Adverse effects discrimination L Fixed or definite term contract B Alcoholism M Human rights Commission C Bona fide occupational requirement N Indefinite term contract D Certification O Independent contractor E Collective agreement P Labour Relations Board F Collective bargaining Q Negligent hiring G Discrimination R Pay equity H Duty to accommodate S Reference I Employment equity legislation T Restrictive covenant J Employment relationship U Sexual harassment K Employment standards legislation V Systemic discrimination W Vicarious liability 1. ____ An employer is liable for the torts of an employee. 2. ____ An employer is liable for hiring an employee that injures a third party. 3. ____ Statutes that have the objective of providing equal access to employment opportunities to all. Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTE20:THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP 4. ____ Discrimination that occurs as a result of a rule that appears neutral but in its effects is discriminatory. 5. ____ Discrimination that results from the combined effects of many rules, practices, and policies. 6. ____ A defence that excuses discrimination as a prohibited ground where it is done in good faith and for a legitimate business reason. 7. ____ Statutes that have the objective of giving underrepresented groups special consideration in hiring. 8. ____ A contract for no fixed period, which can end on reasonable notice. 9. ____ Statutes that provide for minimum wages and maximum hours of work. 10. ____ Statutes that have the objective of providing equal pay for equal work, or equal pay for work of equal value. Questions Write a short, point-form answer for each question in the space provided. To assist you in understanding the chapter, it is recommended that you also use additional paper to write a full and complete essay answer for each question. 1. In what source of law is employment law traditionally rooted? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 2. Why does the federal government regulate in the area of employment law? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 3. What are the benefits of being and independent contractor versus an employee? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 4. Discuss the implication of an employment relationship with respect to an employee and an independent contractor? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 70 PART6:EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. Explain the vicarious liability of employers and the justification for holding them responsible for their employee’s actions. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 6. How does an action for negligent hiring differ from an action involving an employer’s vicarious liability? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 7. Outline the typical steps in a hiring process. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 8. What role do Human Rights Commissions play pursuant to human rights legislation? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 9. Outline prohibited grounds of discrimination under Canadian legislation. _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 10. What aspects of employment are affected by legislation? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Copyright © 2011 by Nelson Education Ltd. CHAPTE20:THE EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIP 11. Contrast the reasons given to justify mandatory retirement with the reasons given for eliminating mandatory retirement? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 12. How can a bona fide occupational requirement be a defence to discrimination? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 13. How is adverse effect discrimination different from direct discrimination? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 14. How is the duty to accommodate relevant to human rights legislation? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 15. What remedies does a Human Rights Commission have available to it? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 16. What does employment equity legislation require employers to do? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 17. What is it prudent for an employer to do prior to making an offer of employment? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 72 PART6:EMPLOYMENT AND PROFESSIONAL RELATIONSHIPS _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 18. What is a key reason why the distinction between fixed/definite-term contracts and indefinite-term contracts is important? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 19. What provisions should be included in an employment contract? ________________
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