Chapter Fourteen Integrated Marketing Communications Strategy
• The promotion mix (marketing communications mix) is the specific blend of
advertising, public relations, personal selling, and direct‐marketing tools that the company
uses to persuasively communicate customer value and build customer relationships
Advertising is any paid form of non‐personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods,
or services by an identified sponsor
Sales promotion is the short‐term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a
product or service
Public relations involves building good relations with the companies various publics by
obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good corporate image, and handling or heading
off unfavorable rumors, stories, and events
• Press releases
• Special events
• Web pages
Personal selling is the personal presentation by the firms sales force for the purpose of
making sales and building customer relationships
• Sales presentations
• Trade shows
• Incentive programs Direct marketing involves making direct connections with carefully targeted individual
consumers to both obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer
Relationships—through the use of direct mail, telephone, direct‐response television, e‐mail,
and the Internet to communicate directly with specific consumers
2) Integrated Marketing Communications
Several factors are changing the face of today’s marketing communications
• Consumers are better informed
• More communication
• Less mass marketing
• Changing communications technology
Integrated marketing communications is the integration by the company of its
communication channels to deliver a clear, consistent, and compelling message about the
organization and its products
3) A View of the Communication Process
• Sender is the party sending the message to another party.
• Encoding is the process of putting thought into symbolic form.
• Message is the set of symbols the sender transmits.
• Media is the communications channels through which the message moves from sender to
• Decoding is the process by which the receiver assigns meaning to the symbols.
• Receiver is the party receiving the message sent by another party.
• Response is the reaction of the receiver after being exposed to the message.
• Feedback is the part of the receivers response communicated back to the sender
• Noise is the unplanned static or distortion during the communication process, which
results in the receivers getting a different message than the one the sender sent. Steps in Developing Effective Marketing Communication
• Marketers seek a purchase response that results from a consumer decision‐making
process that includes the buyer readiness stages:
Designing a Message
• Get Attention
• Hold Interest
• Arouse Desire
• Obtain Action
Message content is an appeal or theme that will produce the desired response
Rational appeal relates to the audiences self‐interest
Emotional appeal is an attempt to stir up positive or negative emotions to motivate
Moral appeal is directed at the audience’s sense of right and proper
Message structure and message format both deal with how the message is put across:
• Message Structure:
– Draw a conclusion, or leave it to the audience?
– Put forth the strongest arguments first or last?
– Present a one or two‐sided argument?
• Message Format:
– Every detail of the ad, from the color of the print ad to the body language of a TV
commercial requires planning to communicate the right message.
Personal communication channels involves two or more people communicating directly
with each other
• Face to face
• Internet chat
Personal communication is effective because it allows personal addressing and feedback
Word of mouth influence is personal communication about a product between target
buyers and neighbors, friends, family members, and associates Personal communication channels are difficult for the company to control as independent
experts and word‐of‐mouth influence overtake the company message
Opinion leaders are people within a reference group who, because of their special skills,
knowledge, personality, or other characteristics; exerts social