Chapter 12.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 4485F/G
Linda Eligh

Chapter 12 – Safe, Secure and Productive Workplaces Loblaws  Invested in safety when times were tough  Make loblaw the best again strategy o Ergonomics to create efficiencies Introduction  Legal, ethical duty of employers to provide workers safe, healthy place to work  Healthy workers are more productive o Investment  Worker has much broader definition than employee o Contractor, employee & third-party employee Employee Safety Occupational Health and Safety Legislation  Legislation did not emerge until the 1870s  Law that authorizes government to establish and enforce occupational health and safety standards, administrative requirements, and enforcement mechanisms in respect of the workplace o Summary: The rules of safety, the standards, and the enforcement  Internal Responsibility System (IRS) – a system within an organization where every person has direct responsibility for health and safety as an essential part of his or her job. o Employers are ultimately responsible when worker becomes sick, injured or killed o Periodic review and revision important o Internal employees such as doctors, nurses and external such as ministries of labour all contribute to effectiveness of IRS o Effective IRS include:  Safety first and safety always – a job that cannot be done safely, should not be done. Reasonable care is important.  Safety is everyone’s’ responsibility – legal responsibility, personal responsibility.  Safe work is efficient work – accidents considered an unacceptable cost of production.  Employer Duties and Responsibilities o Take every reasonable precaution to protect the health and safety of their workers. o An employer charged with occupational health and safety offence will need to prove it exercised due diligence (legal obligation) o General duty on employers , even though regulations made by government stakeholders o Supervisor is generally a person with direction, control or authority over workers – title not necessary  Some specific duties in some statues o Directors and officers may be personally charged and made liable for violations of occupational health and safety o Westray Bill – amended criminal code making occupational health and safety negligence a criminal offence.  The real impact of the bill is to create criminal liability for a corporate entity  Employee Rights, Duties and Responsibilities o Recognizes critical role employees play in health, safe workplace o Have positive legal duties, have a duty to follow safety practices and procedures o Workers have the right to refuse unsafe work, empowerment.  Limits on this placed in some jurisdictions  Right must not be abused by workers  Joint Health and Safety Committees o JHSCS are mandated in all jurisdictions  Joint health and safety committee o Advisory in nature, no legal authority o Establish creative solutions, planning and implementing an effective plan of action o 300+ employees must establish a policy committee.  Oversees and coordinates the activities of occupational health and safety comittes  Enforcement o Use of inspections, investigations, prosecutions and penalties o Inspectors have broad powers  Have authority to issue orders and directions  Request legal opinions  May testy in legal proceedings  Proactive measure o Valuable for guidance and insight o Remedial authority: Stop-work orders, prohibitions of certain equipment use, removal of employees. o Charges under health and safety legislation are quasi-criminal in nature.  Can face jail time depending on jurisdiction  850,000 fine for FORD, 2 employees died.  Chemical Hazards o Standards prohibit some use of chemical, place limits and controls to reduce exposure. o Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS)  A Canada-wide system designed to give employers and workers information about hazardous materials in the workplace.  “Right to know” legislation  National program requires hazardous materials to be identified and properly labelled  Employees must be adequately trained  Effect of OHSL (Occupational Health and Safety Laws) o Fatalies have increased over time, reports have decreased though. o Conforming the statute does not guarantee safety, many employees go beyond the letter of the law Understanding and Preventing Workplace Accidents  Most accidents are preventable o Aside from legal obligation, workplace accidents cost money for employers. o Average time lost costs direct costs and indirect costs  Unsafe Acts o Directly attributable to human error o General disregard for safety standards o Also include conduct in workplace that distracts you or others from focusing on their work (horseplay, bullying, arguments, jokes)  Unsafe Conditions o A physical hazard or inadequate safety programs, policy or training that poses a risk to the health and safety of workers. o Also caused by people, can be created by individuals or symptomatic of a lax safety atmosphere. o Conditions include: inadequate lighting, poor weath conditions, inadequate safety programs. o Effective IRS is key to this process.  Personal Occupational Characteristics o Personal and occupational characteristics have been shown to affect likelihood of accidents occurring.  Likelihood higher in men than woman.  Employees working longer hours, and rotating hours also at higher risk.  Young workers’ inexperience a problem  Language barrier are considerations in their health and safety training  Service industry jobs have lower accident rates than goods-producing industries  Excessive worker stress has also been shown to affect workplace health and safety  Should invest in measures to relieve stress  Stress related absences are estimated to cost Canadian employers 3.5 billion a year  Jobs monotnoeous have higher rates  Fatigue also high contributor to accidents at work  Good lighting, comfortable temperatures, reasonable noise levels are important at reducing fatigue  Top-Down Safety Commitment and Culture o Lead by example o Making hand asafety a priority also means making health and safety visible throughout  Posters pamphlets, safety policies  Health and Safety Training and Education o Is necessary for legal obligations, but also to ensure policies and procedures can effectively put into practice.  Should be periodic  Evaluation is important to evaluate the information is being received and understood as intended.  Selection Testing o Tests can assess specific job-related skills and knowledge o Demonstration of skills, simulation or a written exercise o Essential to ensure all selection testing is effective and legally valid. Safety Awareness Programs  Employer programs that attempt to instill symbolic and substantive changes in the organization’s emphasis on safety o Go beyond compliance with occupational health and safety laws o Identifying and communicating hazards, reinforcing safe practices, and promoting safety internationally  Identifying Job Hazards, Analysis and Communication of Risk o Job Hazard Analysis technique  Breakdown of each job into basic elements, each of which is rated for its potential for harm or injury.  Input from workers who
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