Management and Organizational Studies 3321 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Social Comparison Theory, Cognitive DissonanceExam
DepartmentManagement and Organizational Studies
Course CodeMOS 3321
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MOS 3321 !
Lecture 4 !
•The experience of emotionally-laden states, ranging from evaluation, to moods, to full-
blown emotions !
•Evaluations: valenced, low level reactions !
•Moods: valenced, moderate arousal !
•Emotions: valenced, intense arousal!
•A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive
processes, and behavioural reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be
personally signiﬁcant !
Primary Emotions !
•Our unthinking, automatic, response to a stimuli. We are born with them - they are
Cognitive Appraisal Theory !
•Emotions are judgments about the extent that the current situation meets your goals !
•Happiness: the evaluation that your goals are being satisﬁed !
•Sadness: the evaluation that your goals are not being satisﬁed !
•Anger: judgment aimed at whatever is blocking your goals !
Physiological Perception Theory !
•Emotions are perceptions of changes in your body such as heart rate, breathing rate,
perspiration, and hormone levels !
•Mental reactions to diﬀerent kinds of physiological states !
•The problem is that our bodily tastes are not always that ﬁnally tuned to our variety
of emotional states !
Secondary Emotions !
•Our emotional response to feeling a primary emotion. These are learned- they are
socially constructed !
•To understand/alleviate the experience of a secondary emotion it is useful to
understand the primary emotion that is causing it !
•Ex. Fear is the root of anxiety !
Feelings as Information!
•Emotional feelings focus attention and directly inﬂuence judgments, motivation, goals,
and behaviour !
•Diﬀerent emotions provides diﬀerent types of information !
•Feelings elicited by the target of a judgment provide information while feelings due to
an unrelated inﬂuence can lead us astray !
•Generally, a positive mood produces a more favourable evaluation towards a product,
while a negative mood produces a more unfavourable evaluation !
•Stronger eﬀect for hedonic products (products used for enjoyment) !
•Weaker eﬀect for utilitarian products (products used a purpose) !
Aﬀect Conﬁrmation Theory !
•Emotion/mood can alter how people weigh information used in decision-making !
•Ex. When making a purchase decision… !
•A good mood may lead to a greater emphasis on passive attributes!
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