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Management and Organizational Studies 3321 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Social Comparison Theory, Cognitive DissonanceExam

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 3321
Scott Connors
Study Guide

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MOS 3321 !
Lecture 4 !
Aect !
The experience of emotionally-laden states, ranging from evaluation, to moods, to full-
blown emotions !
Evaluations: valenced, low level reactions !
Moods: valenced, moderate arousal !
Emotions: valenced, intense arousal!
Emotion !
A complex pattern of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive
processes, and behavioural reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be
personally significant !
Primary Emotions !
Our unthinking, automatic, response to a stimuli. We are born with them - they are
Cognitive Appraisal Theory !
Emotions are judgments about the extent that the current situation meets your goals !
Happiness: the evaluation that your goals are being satisfied !
Sadness: the evaluation that your goals are not being satisfied !
Anger: judgment aimed at whatever is blocking your goals !
Physiological Perception Theory !
Emotions are perceptions of changes in your body such as heart rate, breathing rate,
perspiration, and hormone levels !
Mental reactions to dierent kinds of physiological states !
The problem is that our bodily tastes are not always that finally tuned to our variety
of emotional states !
Secondary Emotions !
Our emotional response to feeling a primary emotion. These are learned- they are
socially constructed !
To understand/alleviate the experience of a secondary emotion it is useful to
understand the primary emotion that is causing it !
Ex. Fear is the root of anxiety !
Feelings as Information!
Emotional feelings focus attention and directly influence judgments, motivation, goals,
and behaviour !
Dierent emotions provides dierent types of information !
Feelings elicited by the target of a judgment provide information while feelings due to
an unrelated influence can lead us astray !
Generally, a positive mood produces a more favourable evaluation towards a product,
while a negative mood produces a more unfavourable evaluation !
Stronger eect for hedonic products (products used for enjoyment) !
Weaker eect for utilitarian products (products used a purpose) !
Aect Confirmation Theory !
Emotion/mood can alter how people weigh information used in decision-making !
Ex. When making a purchase decision… !
A good mood may lead to a greater emphasis on passive attributes!
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