FInal Exam Notes - Ch 9-15.docx

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
School
Western University
Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Professor
Chapter 7 Attitudes
Attitude a lasting general evaluation of people (including one’s self), objects, or issues
Attitude object anything toward which a person has an attitude tangible (brand of vodka) or intangible
(drunken driving)
Lasting tends to endure over time
General applies to more than one momentary event
The functions of attitude
o Functional theory of attitudes Daniel Katz to explain how attitudes facilitate social behaviour
attitudes exist BECAUSE they serve some function for the person
o Utilitarian function related to the basic principles of reward and punishment if a person likes the
taste of a cheeseburger they will form a positive attitude towards it ads that stress straightforward
product benefits
o Value-expression function express the person’s central values or self-concept forms an attitude
about the product based on what it says about him/her highly relevant to lifestyles
o Ego-defensive function formed to protect the person either from external threats or internal feelings
o Knowledge function formed as a result of a need for order, structure, and meaning when person is in
an ambiguous situation and in confronted with a new product
The ABC model of attitudes
o Affect refers to the way a consume feels about an attitude object
o Behaviour involves the person’s intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object
(intention does not always result in behaviour)
o Cognition refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an object
o Emphasizes the relationship between feeling, thinking, and doing
o Hierarchies of effects - relative importance of ABC will vary depending on consumer’s motivation with
regard to the attitude object
The high involvement hierarchy
Cognition Affect behaviour Attitude based on cognitive info processing
Problem solving process
The careful choice process often results in a type of BRAND LOYALTY
Buyer is motivated to seek out a lot of info, weigh alternatives and come to a thoughtful
decision
The low involvement hierarchy
Cognition behaviour affect Attitude based on behavioural learning processes
Only collected minimal info and has an emotional response only AFTER consuming
Initially does not have a strong preference for one brand
Consumer’s choice is reinforced by good or bad experiences with the product after
purchase
Consumers are not motivated to process a lot of complex brand-related info
involvement paradox: the LESS important the product is to consumers, the MORE
important the marketing stimuli needs to be (packaging, jingles)
Zajonc’s model of hedonic consumption
Affect behaviour cognition Attitude based on hedonic consumption
Consumers act on the basis of their emotional reactions
Attitudes can be strongly influenced by product attributes irrelevant to the actual
product quality
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Emotional contagion messages delivered by happy people enhance our attitude
toward the product
Debate about the independence of cognition and affect affective responses do not
always require prior cognitions independence hypothesis
Attitude toward the ad
o In addition to forming an attitude toward a product, individuals are influenced by their evaluations of its
advertising
o Attitude object the marketing message itself
o Attitude toward the advertisement defined as a predisposition to respond in a favourable or
unfavourable manner to a particular advertising stimulus during a particular exposure occasion
o Determinants viewer’s attitude toward the advertiser, ad execution itself, mood evoked by the ad,
degree to which the ad affects viewers’ arousal levels
Ads have feelings too
o Ads evoke a large variety of emotional responses from disgust to happiness
o 3 emotional dimensions have been identified in commercials: pleasure, arousal, intimidation
o Specific types of feelings that can be generated:
Upbeat feelings amused, playful
Warm feelings affectionate, hopeful
Negative feelings critical, offended
Forming attitudes
o Attitudes can be formed through classical conditioning, instrumental conditioning, or very complex
cognitive processes
Levels of commitment to an attitude the degree of commitment is related to their level of involvement with the
attitude object
o Compliance at the lowest level of involvement, compliance, an attitude is formed because it helps gain
rewards and avoid punishments from others
Very superficial - likely to change when no one is monitoring
o Identification occurs when attitudes are formed so that the consumer will then feel similar to another
person of group advertisers want consumers to imitate models in their ads
o Internalization hat a high level of involvement, deep-seated attitudes are internalized and become a
part of the person’s value system – very difficult to change
Consistency principle
o Consumers value harmony among their thoughts, feelings, and behaviours and they are motivated to
maintain uniformity among these elements
o The way an attitude object will be evaluated is how it fits in with the other, related attitudes already held
by the consumer
o Cognitive dissonance and harmony among attitudes
Theory of cognitive dissonance when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among
attitudes or behaviours, he/she will take some action to resolve this dissonance
People are MOTIVATED to reduce the negative feelings caused by dissonance by making things fit
with one another two COGNITIVE ELEMENTS are inconsistent with one another
The magnitude of dissonance depends on the IMPORTANCE and the NUMBER of dissonant
elements
Dissonance reduction may occur by eliminating, adding, or changing elements
Can help to explain why evaluations of a product tend to increase AFTER it has been purchased
(post-purchase dissonance) people tend to find even more reasons to like something after it is
theirs
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o Self-perception theory
Provides an alternative explanation for dissonant effects
Assumes that people use observations of their own behaviour to determine what their attitudes
are, just as we assume that we know the attitudes of others by watching them
We maintain consistency by INFERRING that we must have a positive attitude toward an object if
we have bought or consumed it
Relevant to low-involvement hierarchy since it involves situations in which behaviours are initially
performed in the absence of a strong internal attitude
Buying a product out of habit may result in a positive attitude AFTER THE FACT
Helps explain the effectiveness of a sales strategy called the FOOT-IN-THE-DOOR technique
based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he/she has
agreed to comply with a smaller request
Especially useful for inducing consumers to answer surveys or donate money
LOW-BALL TECHNIQUE person is asked for a small favour and is informed after agreeing to it
that it will be very costly
DOOR-IN-THE-FACE TECHNIQUE person is first asked to do something extreme (a request that
is usually refused) and then is asked to do something smaller
o Social judgement theory
Assumes that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in the light of what they
already know or feel
Initial attitude frame of reference, and new info is categorized around the existing standard
People differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable or unacceptable latitudes
of acceptance and rejection
Assimilation effect messages that fall within the latitude of acceptance tend to be seen as
more consistent with our own position than they actually are
Contrast effect messages falling in the latitude of rejection tend to be seen as even FARTHER
from our own position than they actually are
The more involved a person is with an attitude object latitude of acceptance gets smaller the
consumer accepts fewer ideas that are removed from his/her position
o Balance theory
Considers relations among elements a person might perceive as belonging together
Resulting attitude structures are called TRIADS
Each triad contains a person and their perceptions, an attitude object, and some other person
or object
People ALTER these perceptions to make relations among them consistent want elements in a
triad to be consistent
Elements go together in one of 2 ways:
They can have a UNIT RELATION where in element is seen as somehow belonging to or
being a part of the other (like a belief)
SENTIMENT RELATION where 2 elements are linked because one has expressed a
preference for the other
When elements in a triad are unbalanced, tension is created. Although the theory does not say
WHICH route will be taken to eliminate the tension but is does predict that a change in
perception is necessary
o Marketing application of balance theory
When perceptions are balanced attitudes are likely to be stable
When inconsistencies are observed likely to observe changes in attitude
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Document Summary

Attitude a lasting general evaluation of people (including one"s self), objects, or issues. Attitude object anything toward which a person has an attitude tangible (brand of vodka) or intangible (drunken driving) General applies to more than one momentary event. Cognition affect behaviour attitude based on cognitive info processing. The careful choice process often results in a type of brand loyalty. Buyer is motivated to seek out a lot of info, weigh alternatives and come to a thoughtful decision. Cognition behaviour affect attitude based on behavioural learning processes. Only collected minimal info and has an emotional response only after consuming. Consumer"s choice is reinforced by good or bad experiences with the product after. Initially does not have a strong preference for one brand purchase. Consumers are not motivated to process a lot of complex brand-related info involvement paradox: the less important the product is to consumers, the more important the marketing stimuli needs to be (packaging, jingles)

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