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Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 76 pages long!)


Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Professor
Sarah Ross
Study Guide
Final

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Western
Management and Organizational Studies
2181A/B
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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MOS 2181 EXAM 3
Communication: 11 questions (1 from additional reading)
Team Characteristics & Processes: 20 questions (1 from additional reading)
Power, Influence & Negotiation: 13 questions
Leadership Styles & Behaviours: 16 questions (2 from additional reading)
Organizational Structure: 14 questions
Organizational Culture & Change: 18 questions (1 from additional reading)
CHAPTER 10: COMMUNICATION
Communication process by which
information
and
meaning
is transferred from sender to receiver
- Effective communication in organizational settings is important, especially when highly interdependent activities are performed by 2 or more
people
- Plays a central role in virtually all topics covered thus far
The Communication Process
- Encoding preparing message to be sent e.g., writing an email, thinking in your head
- Decoding interpreting the message e.g., processing the message in your mind
- Sender source of information
o E.g. a team member who wants to let another person know that the team has to work more quickly to reach a difficult performance
goal
- Sender needs to translate (
encode
) idea into verbal, written or nonverbal message
o E.g. arm and hand movements to convey idea that team needs to work faster
- Encoded
message
is transmitted to
receiver
who needs to interpret (
decode
) message to form understanding of information it contains
o E.g. message is transmitted visually because members are face to face
o Messages can be transmitted in written form, electronically, or indirectly through others
Face-to-Face Communication
- The exchange of information + meaning when one or more individuals are physically present and where communication occurs without aid of any
mediating technology
- Natural, immediate, real time
-
Verbal
+
nonverbal
qualities =
rich information source
-
gold standard of communication
tends to engage more human senses than mediated communication
- Vast majority of information we process face to face is based on nonverbal cues
-
Survey
revealed almost 70% of managers said their organizations would be more
productive
if leaders communicated
in person
more often
1. Verbal communication messages are sent and received using written and spoken language
o E.g. reading, writing, speaking, listening
o Primary way organizational members communicate with each other, and with individuals and groups outside of organization
o Vehicle for obtaining, transferring and storing information and knowledge within organization
o
Written communication conveys what is important:
E.g. written policies and rules, a company’s mission statement, corporate goals and values, annual report, shorter-term and
longer-term plans,
o
Written communication conveys how and why things are done:
E.g. written job descriptions, explicit and standardized work procedures, training and operational manuals, contracts,
performance appraisals, meeting agendas
o
Oral communication
is probably more prevalent than written communication in organizational settings:
Formal and structured
e.g. job interviews, team meetings, formal presentations
Informal and spontaneous
e.g. relationship-building chitchat, casual exchanges
2. Nonverbal communication any form of information exchange that doesn’t involve spoken or written words
o One’s deliberate or unconscious use of body language to convey information
o E.g. inflection, tone, volume of voice; hand gestures and facial expression; body posture and stance; eye contact and movements;
smell; dress and appearance
o Effective communication involves more than what is said or read
o Researchers estimated that 70-90% of message’s meaning is conveyed, not by words, but by body language and nonverbal body
language seems to have universal relevance for virtually all types of face-to-face interactions
- Research finds that we tend to evaluate and judge the quality of our relationships on the basis of nonverbal instead of verbal cues
o E.g. how might you interpret a weak, almost timid handshake? Or someone who squeezes your hand too hard while maintaining an
intense stare? Or by someone who, after shaking hands, reaches out and offers a warm hug?
- Another finding is that during face-to-face exchanges, receivers tend to see nonverbal messages as more credible, believable and trustworthy
sources of information especially true when there is a discrepancy between verbal and nonverbal messages
- Better communicators need to not only pay attention to nonverbal cues (i.e. what isn’t being said) but contexts in which this information is shared
o E.g. In Canada, degree of eye contact is often used as a sign of the other person’s interest and engagement but in Japanese heritage,
avoiding looking a supervisor in eyes is polite, respectful and appropriate
Computer-Mediated Communication
- The exchange of information and meaning using an electronic, digital medium
- Enhances engagement and verbal exchanges, but doesn’t easily allow for nonverbal communication
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- Lacks information richness, lack nonverbal cues, likelihood of misunderstandings/conflict, information overload, informal, messages hard to
interpret
- Web 2.0 describes websites and applications through which users actively interact, create, collaborate and communicate
o E.g. corporate wikis, social networking tools YouTube, Facebook, Wikipedia
- E-Mail popular method of exchanging written digital messages from an author to one or more recipients
o Preferred way to communicate with co-workers, customers, and other colleagues
o Lacks same richness as face-to-face conversation or even telephone call immediacy and informal nature encourages senders to
construct messages hard to interpret
o When e-mail messages are used to communicate emotional content, it lacks nonverbal cues (i.e. facial expressions, tone of voice)
needed to convey feelings
E.g. intended tone of an email may have been empathy and caring but one inferred by employee might be frustration and
disappointment
o Likelihood of conflicts and misunderstandings increases among those who are limited to e-mail communication
o Extensive reliance on-email can be shown to adversely impact personal relationships:
Study
of faculty and staff within a university found that as level of e-mail use increased
all other forms of communication
decreased
left employees feeling less connected to each other
o Another concern is sheer volume of e-mails (and spam messages) transmitted every day contributing to information overload
- Videoconferencing communication medium that permits real-time, live interaction and discussion between remote individuals or groups via
satellite or Internet
o Cost-efficient and more task-oriented than typical face-to-face interactions
o Works well for tasks that require simple information exchanges, cooperative problem solving or making routine decisions
o Level of interaction prevents users from making eye contact with other participants which reduces general awareness of social dynamics
within group
o Limits some of the natural, informal nonverbal messaging that facilitates communication process less effective for tasks that require
more “communication bandwidth”
E.g. bargaining, conflict resolution, negotiation or getting to know people
- Wiki highly flexible Web 2.0 application that allows people to quickly exchange verbal information and collaboratively solve problems, learn,
manage projects and create knowledge
o Tend to be controlled by one or more “owners”
o Owners can be assigned by company or informally emerge around topic of interest within a community of users
E.g. individual steps forward + sets up a wiki to coordinate volunteer opportunities
o Owners’ role define purpose of wiki and establish access privileges
o Design features (open access, transparency in terms of who contributes what, peer-based management) allow owners to track relative
contribution of users
o Study at IBM revealed wiki owners and users experienced 2 competing motives when deciding how to participate in wiki-related
activity:
Engineers in study reported the opportunity to collaborate/communicate with others was exciting and engaging but also
seemed aware of risks which called for more cautious approach, e.g. exposing incompetence, looking foolish in front of peers
Reveled enthusiastic yet somewhat restrained participation
- Computer-mediated communication large numbers of employees collaborate, exchange information and coordinate themselves
o These tools can enhance sense of “community” and foster strong vs. weak culture
- A major strength is that it greatly enhances engagement and verbal exchanges
The Communication Process: Potential Issues
1. Communicator Competence ability of communicators to encode and interpret messages
o A skilled communicator should be able to process nonverbal information and extract intended meaning
o
Communication process
will
suffer
if participants lack communication competence
o Emotions can impact how people express themselves and cloud their interpretation of information they receive from others
o Communicators’ ability to
regulate their emotions
+
understand emotions
of others results in clearer communications, less prone
to misunderstanding
2. Noise disturbing or distracting stimuli that block or interfere with transmission of a message
o Face-to-face communication is particularly
sensitive
to presence/absence of noise
E.g. difficulty holding a conversation with someone at a party because of blaring music
o Noise increases
effort
communicators need to exert to make communication process work
3. Information richness amount and depth of information transmitted in a message
o Face-to-face messages have
highest level of richness
Senders can convey meaning through words, body language, facial expressions and tone of voice
Provides opportunity to get feedback, verify and ensure messages are received and interpreted correctly
o Computer-generated reports consisting largely of
numbers
have
lowest level of richness
o A personal written note has a
moderate level of information richness
Limited to words on the page but choice of words and punctuation can add meaning beyond words themselves
Although recipients of e-mail messages do try to interpret emotions of sender from content, they unfortunately often perceive
emotion as negative when it’s not
o Higher levels of information richness are
preferable
to lower levels complex and difficult to understand tasks
More cues available to receiver = more likely the message will be understood the way sender intended it to be
o Higher levels of information richness
overcomplicate
communication process simple and straightforward tasks
Increases chance that some of cues will seem contradictory and receivers may feel they’re given mixed messages
o In summary:
the greater the complexity of the work, the more likely the benefits of information richness will outweigh its cost
s
4. Gender differences different ways men and women tend to process and interpret information and communicate with others
o
Men’s style of communication
helps them achieve and maintain status, power, independence
E.g. showing off their ability or knowledge within a team meeting, telling stories or jokes, being direct when asking someone
else to do something, taking credit for something good they have done
o
Women’s style of communication
sends messages that build and strengthen their relationships
E.g. showing concern and support, asking questions, asking for help and feedback, buffering criticism with praise, using
compliments to build relationships, being indirect and subtle when sending messages to others
o Can lead to misunderstandings and often to faulty inferences about each other’s confidence and competence
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