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Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Job Performance, Customer Service, Performance Management

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Sarah Ross
Study Guide

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MOS 2181 Final Exam Part 6
Organizational Culture and Change
- Organizational Culture: The shared social knowledge within an organization regarding
the rules, norms, and values that shape the attitudes and behaviours of its employees
- Culture is somewhat shared by individuals in organizations
o Culture is social knowledge among members of the organization you learn it by
being around others
o Culture tells employees what the rules, norms, and values are within the
o Organizational culture shapes and reinforces certain eploee’s attitudes and
- How you describe your organization
o Considers the types of people there, the atmosphere on a regular day, the
facility you work in, how you feel people are treated, how success is defined in
your organization, etc.
The 3 Culture Components
- Eist i a orgaizatio’s ulture
- Includes:
o Observable artifacts
o Espoused values
o Basic underlying assumptions
- Some components are easily observable and others are less obvious to outsiders /
Observable Artifacts
- Observable Artifacts: Aspets of a orgaizatio’s ulture that eploees ad outsiders
can easily see or talk about
- The signals employees get that show how they should act everyday
- Primary means of transmitting a orgaizatio’s ulture to its orkfore
- Easy to recognize ut it does’t ea that people autoatiall partiipate
- Six major types of artifacts:
o Symbols
Symbols: The images an organization uses, which generally convey
Examples: corporate logo, website pictures, etc.
o Physical Structures
Physical Structures: The organizations buildings and internal office design
How buildings are situated, where top management is found, etc.
Examples: whether the workplace is open, if top management is
separate, unique factors about the setting
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o Language
Language: The jargon, slang, and slogans used within an organization
Example: Realistic job preview
o Stories
Stories: Anecdotes, accounts, legends, and myths passed down from
cohort to cohort within an organization
Telling stories shows what the company values or finds important
o Rituals
Rituals: The daily or weekly planned routines that occur in an
Example: Casual Friday invites employees to be relaxed and encourages
work to be fun
o Ceremonies
Ceremonies: Formal events, generally performed in front of an audience
of organizational members
Formal, different audiences
Espoused Values
- Espoused Values: The beliefs, philosophies, and norms that a company explicitly states
- Eaples: opa’s isios, issio stateets, aual reports, eral stateets
made to employees by managers, etc.
- The values over time and regardless of situational factors should become more
believable to employees and outsiders
Basic Underlying Assumptions
- Basic Underlying Assumptions: The engrained beliefs and philosophies of employees
- Things that employees simply act on rather than questioning the validity of the
behaviour in a given situation
- Long-lasting in nature
- Tends to guide the attitudes and behaviours in an organization
- These are the deepest and least observable part of culture
- Hidden beliefs that are most likely to dictate employee behaviour and affect employee
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General Culture Types
- Solidarity: the degree to which group members think and act alike
o Harder to foster when organizations get really large
- Sociability: how friendly employees are to one another
- Cultures do’t eessaril fall uder oe tpe – it may change over time
o Can be influenced by growth in size or age of an organization
o Small businesses start with communal, grow to networked
- Fragmented Culture: An organizational culture type in which employees are distant and
disconnected from one another
o Low sociability
o Low solidarity
o Not an ideal culture to have in an organization
- Mercenary Culture: An organization culture type in which employee think alike but are
not friendly to one another
o Low sociability
o High solidarity
o Ver politial hat’s i it for e eiroets
o Not an ideal culture to have in an organization
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