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Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Active Listening, Job Satisfaction, Ingratiation

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Sarah Ross
Study Guide

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MOS 2181 Final Exam Part 3
Power, Influence, and Negotiation
- Powerful people within organizations can make a huge difference to the success of an
organization or group
- Power: The ability to influence the behaviour of others and resist unwanted influence in
o Influence is putting your power to use the use of behaviours to change others
- Just because someone has the ability to ifluee soeoe does’t ea that they’ll
actually do it
o Most ties, the ost poerful people do’t ee ko ho ifluetial they a
o Sometimes, people with distinct titles of authority have less power
Acquiring Power
- Five major types of power in two key dimensions:
o Organizational Power
Deries fro a perso’s positio ithi the orgaizatio
Considered to be more formal
o Personal Power
More strongly related to organizational commitment and job
- People can hold all forms of power at the same time
Organizational Power Types
1. Legitimate Power
o Legitimate Power: A form of organizational power based on authority or position
o Referred to as formal l authority
o Hold some form of authority in a title
o The higher up in an organization the person is, the more legitimate power they
o Does not allow you to ask employees to do something outside the scope of their
2. Reward Power
o Reward Power: A form of organizational power based on the control of
resources or benefits
o Ability to influence others only if people believe they will receive rewards by
behaving a certain way
o Example: Listening to a manager because you think that they will give you a
promotion if you do
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3. Coercive Power
o Coercive Power: A form of organizational power based on the ability to hand out
o Operates on the principle of fear
o Bad form of power to use regularly leads to negative feelings about the person
who holds it
o Example: Listening to a manager because you think that they will fire you if you
Personal Power
1. Expert Power
o Expert Power: A form of organizational power based on expertise or knowledge
o More likely to influenced others if you have a track record of high performance,
aility to sole proles or speifi koledge that’s eessary to sole tasks
o About what they individually bring to the organization
o Common in STEM jobs
2. Referent Power
o Referent Power: A form of organizational power on the attractiveness and
charisma of the leader
o Desire is generated from the affection, admiration or loyalty toward a specific
o People who have a good reputation, attractive qualities, etc.
The Four Factors Affecting Power
- Revolves around the idea that the more other employees depend on a person, the more
powerful that person becomes
1. Substitutability
o Substitutability: The degree to which people have alternatives in accessing the
resources that a leader controls
o Leaders that otrol resoures that others do’t hae a use this poer to gai
greater influence
2. Discretion
o Discretion: The degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on
their own
o If you have to follows others direction, your ability to influence is reduced
3. Centrality
o Centrality: Ho iportat a perso’s jo is ad ho ay people deped o
that person to accomplish their tasks
o Leaders who perform critical tasks and interact with others regularly have a
greater ability to influence
4. Visibility
o Visibility: How aware are others of a leader and the resources that leader can
o High ability to influence if everyone knows you have power
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- Influence: The use of behaviours to cause behavioural or attitudinal changes in others
o You would not say Bob has this much influence
o You would say bob has this much influence over James
- Two important aspects:
o Can be seen as directional
Most frequently downward (managers influencing employees)
Can sometimes be lateral or upward
o All relative
The asolute poer of the iflueer ad ifluee is’t as iportat as
the disparity between them
Influence Tactics
- Trying to cause a behavioural or attitudinal change in others
- Most successful when used in combinations
- Most suessful are usually softer i ature – take advantage of personal forms of
o The 4 most effective are good because they change both your behaviours and
Influence Tactics Most Effective
1. Rational Persuasion
o Rational Persuasion: The use of logical arguments and hard facts to show
someone that a request is worthwhile
o Examples: research
o The only technique that is consistently effective in an UPWARD position
o RESEARCH: Most effective when it helps show that the proposal is important and
o Focused on any potential benefits to simple logic, the group or organization, etc.
2. Inspirational Appeals
o Inspirational Appeal: An influee tati desiged to appeal to oe’s alues ad
ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction
o Leaders must know what kinds of things are important to the target
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