Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Study Guide - Final Guide: Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment

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Values: A broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others. Do not predict
behavior in certain situations very well.
Six categories of values:
1. Intellectual
2. Economic
3. Aesthetic
4. Social
5. Political
6. Religious
Different occupational groups = different values.
People choose occupations that correspond to their values.
Work centrality: Work as a life interest.
Hofstede’s study:
oQuestion 116 000 IBM employees in 40 countries about work-related values.
oDiscovered four dimensions along which work-related values differed across
1. Power distance
a. The extent to which an unequal distribution of power is
accepted by society members.
2. Uncertainty avoidance
a. The extent to which people are uncomfortable with uncertain
and ambiguous situations.
3. Masculinity/femininity
4. Individualism/collectivism
5. Long-term/short-term orientation
Attitude: A fairly stable evaluative tendency to respond consistently to some specific
object, situation, person, or category of people.
Job satisfaction: A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs.
oFacet satisfaction: Liking/disliking certain facets of the job.
oOverall satisfaction: Overall indicator of a person’s attitude to their job.
Job Descriptive Index (JDI): Popular measure of job satisfaction. Questionnaire design
around five facets of satisfaction.
What determines job satisfaction?
oDiscrepancy theory: Job satisfaction stems from the discrepancy between the
job outcomes wanted and the outcomes that are perceived to be obtained.
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Distributive fairness: Fairness that occurs when people receive what
they think they deserve from their jobs.
Equity theory: Job satisfaction stems from a comparison of the
inputs invested in a job and the outcomes one receives in
comparison with the inputs and outcomes of another person or
Procedural fairness: Fairness that occurs when the process used to
determine work outcomes is seen as reasonable.
Interactional fairness: Fairness that occurs when people feel they have
received respectful and informative communication about an outcome.
oMood and emotion
Emotion: Intense, often short-lived feelings caused by a particular
Moods: Less intense, longer-lived, and more diffuse feelings.
Emotional contagion: Tendency for moods and emotions to spread
between people or throughout a group.
Emotional regulation: Requirement for people to conform to certain
“display rules” in their job behavior in spite of their true mood or
Key contributors to job satisfaction:
oMentally challenging work
oAdequate compensation
oCareer opportunities
Consequences of job satisfaction:
oAbsence from work, however, absence-satisfaction connection is not very
oTurnover, moderately strong connection.
oPerformance, connection is complicated due to other factors.
Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB): Voluntary, informal behavior that
contributes to organizational effectiveness.
Forms of OCB:
oHelping, being a good sport, courtesy and cooperation.
Employee satisfaction customer satisfaction profits for the company.
Organizational commitment: An attitude that reflects the strength of the linkage between
an employee and an organization.
Three types:
1. Affective commitment: Commitment based on identification and
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involvement with an organization. Stay because they WANT to.
Positively related to performance.
2. Continuance commitment: Commitment based on the costs that would
be incurred in leaving an organization. Stay because they HAVE to.
Negatively related to performance.
3. Normative commitment: Commitment based on ideology or a feeling
of obligation to an organization. Stay because they SHOULD.
Impact of changes in the workplace on employee commitment:
oChanges in the nature of employee’s commitment to the organization
oChanges in the focus of employee’s commitment
oThe multiplicity of employer-employee relationships within organizations
Motivation: The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal.
Intrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the
worker and the task; it is usually self-applied.
Extrinsic motivation: Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the
task; it is usually applied by others. Ex: profit sharing, employee stock ownership.
Performance: The extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the
objectives of the organization.
Two types of intelligence that are important to performance:
1. General cognitive ability: A person’s basic information processing capacities
and cognitive resources.
2. Emotional intelligence: The ability to understand and manage one’s own and
other’s feelings and emotions.
EI hierarchy model (from bottom to top):
oThe perception of emotions
oThe integration and assimilation of emotions
The ability to use and assimilate emotions and
emotional experiences to guide and facilitate one’s
thinking and reasoning.
oKnowledge and understanding of emotions
oManagement of emotions
Performance = motivation + cognitive ability + EI.
Engagement: The extent to which an individual immerses his true self into his work roles.
When people are engaged, they employ and express themselves physically, cognitively,
and emotionally during role performances.
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