Chapter 12: Leadership
What is the nature of leadership?
o The process of inspiring others to work hard to accomplish important tasks
Contemporary leadership challenges
o Shorter time frames to accomplish things
o Expectations for success on the first attempt
o Complex, ambiguous and multidimentional problems
o Taking a long term view while meeting short term demands
Management functions (all overlapping relationship)
Leading: to inspire effort
o Communicate the vision
o Build enthusiasm
o Activate commitment, hardwork
Controlling: to ensure results
Planning: to set the direction
Organizing: to create structures
Leadership characteristics: leader emergence
o Intelligence
o Openness to experience
o Extraversion (highest correlation with emergence and performance)
o Conscientiousness (highest correlation with emergence)
o Emotional stability
o High self-monitoring
Leadership emergence seem to be stable across the life-span
Motivation to lead
o Affective identity motivation
o Noncalculative motivation
o Social normative motivation
Leader performance
o Traits
Intelligence (highest correlation with performance)
Openness to experience
Emotional stability
o Needs
Type of needs
Leadership motive pattern
High need for power
Low need for affiliation
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o Task vs person orientation
Person oriented leaders
Act n a warm, supportive manner and show concern for the
Believe employees are intrinsically motivated
Task oriented leaders
Set goals and give orders
Believe employees are lazy and extrinsically motivated
o Unsuccessful leaders
Lack of training
Cognitive deficiencies
Personality problems
High likeability floater
Engage in illegal and unethical behavior
Avoid conflict and people problems
Demonstrate poor emotional control
Over-controlling (micromanaging)
Demonstrating poor task performance
Poor planning, organization and communication
Starting or passing rumors or sharing confidential information
Procrastinating and not meeting time commitments
Failing to accommodate the personal needs of subordinates
Failing to nurture and manage talent
What are the important leadership traits and behaviors?
Blake and Mouton Leadership Grid
o Team management
High task concern, high people concern
Focuses on building participation and support for a shared purpose
o Authority-obedience management
High task concern, low people concern
Focuses on efficiency of tasks and operations
o Country club management
High people concern, low task concern
Focuses on people’s needs, building relationships
o Impoverished management
Low task concern, low people concern
Focuses on minimum effort to get work done
o Middle of the road management
Non-committal for both task concern and people concern
Focus on balancing work output and morale
What are the contingency theories of leadership?
Hersey-Blanchard situational leadership model
o Leaders adjust their style depending on the readiness of their followers to perform
in a given situation
Readinesshow able, willing and confident followers are in performing
o Participating: share ideas
Works best in low to moderate readiness situations
o Selling: explain decisions
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