Midterm 2 Bacteria Summary.docx

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Western University
Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B
Kelly Summers

Yersinia Yersinia enterocolitica Causes “yersiniosis” – a rare cause of diarrhea and - gram negative abdominal pain rods Yersinia Cause tuberculosis pseudotuberculosis Yersinia pestis Cause of Plague - “Plague of Justinian” - evolved from Y. (first pandemic) pseudotuberculosis - “Black Death” (second pandemic) - transmission for - third pandemic human disease: (rodents and fleas) - flea-bite - handling infected animals (skin contact, scratch, bite) - inhalation from humans (pneumonic) or animals - ingesting infected meat Penicillium Produces penicillin (B- notatum Lactam antibiotics) to kill staphylococci Enterococci E. faecalis - more virulent - less drug resistant - gram positive, E. faecium - less virulent non-motile, grows - more drug resistant (due to in chains the van genes) - cause urinary tract infections, endocarditis, surgical infections/wounds Acinetobacter - “Iraqibacter” baumannii - now causes many infections including - gram negative pneumonia, UTI, aerobe bacteremia, sepsis Klebsiella NDM-1 - important cause of pneumoniae nosocomial pneumonia - gram negative - produces a capsule & facultative resistant to many anaerobe antibiotics Mycobacteria M. tuberculosis Cause Tuberculosis in - non-motile, rod shaped, humans obligate aerobe - intracellular pathogen (lives within macrophages) - have high concentrations of mycolic acid in the cell envelope M. bovis Cause Tuberculosis in cows M. avium Can cause a tuberculosis-like illness in humans, particularly in AIDS patients M. leprae Cause Leprosy in humans Clostridia Clostridium difficile Pseudomembranous colitis Clostridium tetani Tetanus Clostridium botulinum Botulism Clostridium perfringens Food-borne illness and gas gangrene Staphylococci Staphylococcus aureus - coagulase positive staph - “aureus” = gold - colonize in anterior nares and skin - surface proteins bind host proteins using adhesins - “pyogenic” or pus- producing infection (abscess) - resistance to phagocytosis (reorients antibodies) - make toxins that kill leukocytes Staphylococcus - coagulase negative epidermidis staph - known for forming biofilms (complex structured communities of bacteria) Staphylococcus - coagulase negative staph saprophyticus Plague Bubonic Plague - most common form - transmitted by flea bites (Y. pestis) - buboes: painfully swollen lymph nodes in groin, armpits and neck - 40-60% mortality if untreated Septicemic - Y. pestis in the blood (causes sepsis) Plague - can also develop buboes - flea bites can now pick up Y. pestis from blood to transmit to
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