Microbiology 2500A/B Bacteriology Summary.docx

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Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B
John Mc Cormick

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GRAM NEGATIVE 1. Yersinia pestis → cause plague. Intracellular pathogen 2. Acinetobacter baumannii. Iraqibacter. Virulence: pili, LPS, biofilm. Found in ICUs, burn unit a. Cause ventilator associated pneumonia, UTIs, bacteremia and sepsis 3. Klebsiella pneumoniae causes nosocomial pneumonia. Produces capsule. a. Had NDM-1 gene → encodes carbapenemase enzyme → breaks down antibiotic called carbapenems (β lactamase resistant β lactams) – last resort for multi-resistant gram negatives. 4. Neisseria meningitides diplococcus, causes meningococcal disease: LPS leads to septic shock, DIC 5. Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) produce capsule. Meningitis under 5 after resp or ear infection GRAM POSITIVE 1. Enterococci (VRE) faecalis: more virulent less drug resistant. Faecium: less virulent more drug resistant. a. Can be vancomycin resistant (VRE). Cause UTIs, endocarditis. 2. Clostridia: rod shaped, endospore formers, anaerobes, in soil & animal GI tract. Cause life threatening diseases mediated by exotoxins. Toxin mediated diseases: a. Difficile: pseudomembranous colitis (antibiotic-associated diarrhea). Can exist as asymptomatic carrier state, mild diarrhea or life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. Nosocomial. Treat with antibiotics → can revert to highly resistant endospores. Spore transmission by fecal-oral route. Colonize in GI i. Broad spectrum antibiotic → kill microbiota + persistence of C. difficile endospores → stop antibiotic → production of toxins damage intestinal lining (yellow lesions).Toxin causes disease. ii. C. diff produces A-B toxins: 2 large clostridial cytotoxins b. Tetani: tetanus; toxin causes spastic contraction of muscle. Die of asphyxiation/suffocation c. Botulinum: botulism food borne illness. Toxin causes paralysis d. Perfringens: food borne illness & gas gangrene (wounds heal while dirty → heroine addicts) 3. Staphylococci biofilm associated infections. #1 nosocomial. Grow in high salt. Extracellular pyogenic → abscess a. Epidermidis: coagulase negative, produce capsule → biofilm → catheter
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