109155462-Antimicrobial-Agents (2).pdf

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B

ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS INHIBIT CELL WALL SYNTHESIS/ (4) B-Lactam antibiotic 2. CEPHALOSPORINS Dra. Teoxon 1. PENICILLINS Prepared by: ErnieG. Bautista II  Originated from fungi, can kill spirochetes 1 Gen (CEPH) 2 Gen (CEF) 3 Gen (CEFT) o Penicillin G – acid labile (easily destroyed by Cephalothin Cefamandole Ceftzoxime Definition of terms acid); do not give orally; given systemically/ IV Cephalpirin Cefuroxime Ceftriazone  Chemotherapy – drugs that treat diseases o Penicillin V – acid stable; given orally Cephradine Cefonicid Ceftazidime  Antimicrobial drugs – interfere the growth of microbes o Methiallin Cephalexin Cefaclor Ceftibuten within a host o Nafcillin resistance to B-lactamase Cefazolin Cefonitin Ceftaxime  Antibiotic – substance produced by a microbe that in o Oxacillin Cefadroxil Cefotefan Cefixime small amount inhibits another microbe. o Cloxacillin Cefprozil Cefpodoxime  Selective toxicity – drugs that kills harmful microbes o Ampicillin broad spectrum; either systemic Ceforanide Cefoperazone WITHOUT damaging the host o Amoxicillin or orally; for gm (+/-) Cefmetazole Cefdinir o Toxic to a specific bacteria o Carbenicillin 4th Gen o TIcarcillin antippseudomonans Cefepime History o Piperacillin (Pseudomonas auerrginosa)  1928 – Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin  Pen G & Pen V = are narrow spectrum 1 generation cephalosporin o Penicillum – from FUNGI  Effective in gm (+) cocci; some gm (-) bacilli  1940 – Howard Florey & Ernst chain able to produce MODE OF ACTIONS  NOT MRSA (Methyl Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus) enough penicillin in 1940 to experiment with its effects  1 step – binds to penicillin-binding CHON (PBPs)  Doesn’t enter CNS, can’t cross BBB on mice.  2 step – inhibits activity of transpeptidase  Ex: gm (-) kleibsiella o Enzyme cross linking of peptidoglycan chains  Not for meningitis CELL WALL synthesis Penicillins Monobactams o LYSIS 2 generation Cephalosporins Vancomycin o Only for those with (+) cell wall  For gm (-) anerobes Carbapenems  3 step – activate autolysin rd  Doesn’t enter CNS PROTEIN synthesis Chlorampenicol 3 generation Aminoglycosides MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE  Gm +/- cocci ; (-) rods Macrolides  Penicillinases (B-lactamase) breaks lactam ring  Enter CNS (traverse BBB) – except Cefoperazone Tetracyclines structure (ie. Staphylococcus) th  (+) meningitis & meningococcemia NUCLEIC ACID Fluroquinolones  Structural change PBPs 4 generation Rifampicin/ Rifampin  Change in porin structure  Broad spectrum (only LAST option; expensive) FOLIC ACID Sulfonamides Timethoprim  Prescribe if patient become resistant ADVERSE EFFECTS  Resistant tomost B-lactamases Pyrimethamine  Hypersensitivity (5-7 %) – most common AE  Use for any type of bacteria  GI distress – diarrhea; epigastric pain  Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions ADVERSE EFFECTS o Patient with syphilis then treated with  Hypersensitivity (2%) penicillin suffer this reaction  IV injections – can cause phlebitis (must SLOW IV push) o A transient Hypertension (secondary)  Interstitial nephritis (caused bymethicillin)  If IM – there is PAIN  Maculopapular rash (caused by ampicillin) 3. Carbapenems o Elevated lesion at least <5 mm with 4. Monobactams erymathous border  “TIGDAS” *CEFTRIAZOME – DOC forGonorrhea; painful (IM) IMIPENEM & MEROPENEM  AE: discoloration of teeth (not recommended for fetus o BELOW the diaphragm is METRONIDAZOLE  MOA: same as penicillin
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