Immune Study Notes Lecture 5
1. What are the components of the different types of bacteria?
Gram (+) – peptidoglycan, strong wall consisting of lipids/proteins/sugars ex/
Gram (-) – lipopollysacharide; 2 outter membranes; very narrow band of
LPS and lipotoeichoic acid are PAMPS
2. What are some common bacterial PAMPs?
Not always on the outside; on the inside bacterial DNA is CpG DNA – not methylatd
on the C like ours is (to be repaired). Bacteria also have flagella and metabolites
such as fMLP (formly peptides)
3. What are viral PAMPs?
CpG DNA, dsRNA, endosomal RNA or DNA
4. What are some fungal PAMPs?
Zymosal = carbohydrate outer tough shell
Beta Glycan is on the side; sugar that can be a PAMP
Profilin is a protein on the inside
5. What type of PRRs do we have?
TLR and non TLR – germ line encoded
6. Fly missing the gene toll?
Won’t grow up will just die. If we remove the toll gene from the adult fly, they start
growing fur; fungus spreads and comes out of the shell and kills it – thought toll was
just a developmental gene; part of immunity?
7. What do each of the TLR recognize?
TLR 1,2,6 recognize lipitichoic acid
TLR 3 – dsDNA TLR4/MD – LPS
TLR 5 – flagella
TLR7 – ssRNA
TLR9 – CpG DNA
8. What cells are associated with TLR1/2 and TLR3?
TLR1/2 bind zymosan – all immune cells
TLR3 binds dsRNA – virus - NK cells
9. Discuss the TLR signal pathway.
Ligand binds and dimerizes; binds myd88 and mal, recruits IRAK1 and IRAK4,
ITRAK phosphorylates TRAF, TRICA ubs TRAF and NEMO, Tab1/2 and TAK complex
get phosphorylated by IRAK, binds NEMO, Tak ph. IKKbeta which phosphorylates
IKb – goes to get degraded and releases NfKB which goes to produce cytokines.
10.Not all receptors are the same.
Instead of using myd and mal either use trif or myd
dsRNA – TLR3 recognizes; TRIF activates TBK1 which phos. IRF7.
ssRNA – TLR7 recognizes MYD88 which activates and phosphorylates IRF7.
11.What are NODs?
NODs are a form of TLR that are within the cell. When a PAMP binds, the TLR
dimerizes, recruits RIPK2, activates TAK1 which activates IKK then NFKB to make