Immune Lecture 22 Study Notes.docx

5 Pages
100 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Microbiology and Immunology
Course
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Immune Lecture 22 Study Notes 1. How can inflammation cause cancer? -many chronic inflammatory diseases increase the risk IBD = chronic inflammation of the GI tract can cause colon/rectal cancer (10% get it) within the general population, 0.05% develop colon or rectal cancer -reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can mutate DNA 2. What does ROS do? -can generate many mutated DNA bases -chemically altered forms of DNA created by superoxide or hydrogen peroxide -DNA repair might fix them but sometimes it doesn’t 3. Discuss inflammation, infection and cancer. -chronic infection can lead to cancer (helicobacter pylori = infection of the stomach) will colonize the stomach and induce inflammation this damage will lead to the cancer -some viruses carry cancer-causing genes oncovirus (enter infected cell and use gene to take over cell division) epstein-barr virus, kaposi’s sarcoma virus, HPV 4. How much of cancer do infections cause? -infections may cause up to 25% of all cancers -vaccination against these viruses can prevent these cancers 5. What is HPV? -human papilloma virus -causes cervical cancer (5 most common in women) -250 000 deaths per year 6. What are the different strains? -HPV-16, 18, 6 and 11 -6/11 mostly cause warts, rarely cancer -others cause cervical cancer -HPV can also cause anal, vaginal, penile, head, neck and oral cancers 7. Discuss the HPV vaccines. -guardacil protects against all forms -cervarix protects against 16 and 18 -both consist of empty (no genome) virus-like particles containing HPV organs 8. How well does the vaccine work? -farely new but so far in patients that have used it: majority are protected against precancerous lesions s 9. What helps tumours to grow? -inflammation 10.What purpose does tumor inflammation serve? -drives angiogenesis to provide blood supply to the growing tumor -creates a microenvironment which suppresses TH1 responses 11.Why is angiogenesis required for tumor growth? -cells need oxygen and nutrients to grow -when it stops growing the tumour will secrete VEGF which will cause new blood vessels to form, penetrate the tumour and allow more O2 and nutrients to expand -much larger and can metastasize 12.Why does tumor angiogenesis require immune cells? -neutrophils lie within the blood vessels -when they crawl out of them to go towards the tissue they create a channel -producing angiogenic factors/growth factors and create new endothetlial cells which will form the blood vessel -this gives the tumour a new blood vessel 13.How do we stop blood vessels from being formed? -experiment where Nu were killed using antibodies -if new channels aren’t formed then VEGF can’t be secreted to stimulate the growth of new blood vessels 14.What is a tumour associated macrophage? -somehow activates an M2 (alternatively) -they start producing anti inflammatory cytokines, pro-healing, angiogenic factors and neutrophil attractors -TFFbeta, IL-10, CXCL1/2/3/8, VEGF and VEGA 15.How do we get an M2? -monocytes enter the tumour are exposed to M-CSF, IL4/10/13 which turn it into an M2 -from here, it will produce CXCL1/2/3/8 which will recruit neutrophils in order to produce channels -VEGF/chemokines/cytokines produced to make angiogenesis occur -VEGF/VEGA also produced by macropage to stimulate angiogensis -M2 will release growth factors and tissue repair factors to stimulate tumour growth -M2 will release IL10 and TGFbeta -TGFbeta will cause T cells and DC to make TH2 or Treds while IL10 will stimulate more monocytes 16.Can inflammation kill cancer? -trying to tweak our immune system to be more tumor killing -kill tumour cells in high enough quantities: ROS, RNS, proteases, pore-forming proteins and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity 17.Can our adaptive immune system fight cancer? -experiments with mice: mice with certain immune mutations have a higher incidence of cancer gamma delta T-cells missing RAG/STAT1 (making T cells) knockouts perforin knockouts (released in granzymes) -experiment with mice: give them irradiated tumour cells (killed; so they c
More Less

Related notes for Microbiology and Immunology 3300B

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit